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Ward, Robert Leigh, and Tim Doyle, "The Whitney Lineage of John1 Whitney of Watertown, Massachusetts," TAG 81, No. 4 (Oct 2006):249-262.

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In 1896 Herny Melville published what appeared to be a well-researched book outlining the identification of the immigrant John1 Whitney of Watertown, Massachusetts, and detailing his lineage back to the earliest Whitneys of Whitney, co. Hereford.1 In 1933, however, Donald Lines Jacobus reviewed this work and cast serious doubt on the identification of John's father, ThomasA Whitney, as the grandson of Sir Robert Whitney, based upon chronological difficulties.2 In 1994 Paul C. Reed provided proof that Melville's suggested lineage was incorrect when he brought to light additional information concerning the chronology.3 This current article will present a proposed paternal ancestry of John1 Whitney through a cadet branch of the ancient knightly family of Whitney of Whitney, based on recently discovered documents and a fresh analysis of all the information currently known about John1 Whitney and the Whitney families of this time period.


It has been generally accepted that John1 Whitney of Watertown was the John Whitney, son of Thomas Whitney, gent., and his wife Mary (Bray), who was baptized on 20 July 1592 at St. Margaret's, Westminster, England.|4 The evidence in


1 Henry Melville, The Ancestry of John Whitney, Who, with His Wife Elinor, and Sons John, Richard. Nathaniel, Thomas, and Jonathan, Emigrated from London, England, in the Year 1635, and Settled in Watertown, Massachusetts; the First of the Name in America, and the One from Whom a Great Majority of the Whitneys Now Living in the United States Are Descended (New York, 1896) (hereafter cited as Melville, Whitney Ancestry).
2 Donald Lines Jacobus, "Pre-American Ancestries: John Whitney of Watertown, Mass.," TAG 10(1933-34):84-88.
3 Paul C. Reed, "Whitney Origins Revisited: John' Whitney of Watertown, Massachusetts, and Henry' Whitney of Long Island and Norwalk, Connecticut," TAG 69(1994):9-14.
4 St. Margaret, Westminster, parish register [Family History Library (FHL), Salt Lake City, film #908,519).

[p. 250]

favor of this is persuasive, based on the parish records of St. Margaret's, the parish registers of Islewortb, co. Middlesex, and St. Mary Aldermary, London, and the records of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors. This evidence was laid out by Melville, evaluated by Jacobus and Reed, and supplemented by Smith and Sanborn in 1996.5

One additional fact not mentioned by the above sources has been discovered. As was previously reported,6 but not widely published, on 29 December 1629, "marye the Daughter of John Whitney taylore dwellinge in Bowe lanne [emphasis added]" was christened, according to the parish register of St. Mary Aldermary, London, England.7


The new fact discovered is that John1 Whitney, "Taylor," bought six acres of land in Watertown near the "Little Playne" from Robert Daniel on 6 2nd month [April] 1653.8 Thus, the occupations of the English and Watertown John Whitneys were the same, buttressing their identification as the same individual. Although no source has been found to prove beyond all doubt that this is true, we believe the circumstantial evidence in favor of it is very strong, and we accept it. Not only was John1 Whitney a member of the Worshipful Company of Merchant Taylors, but he actually was a tailor.


Once we accept Melville's evidence and the data above that ThomasA Whitney gent., of Westminster was the father of John1 Whitney of Watertown, we are faced with the question of Thomas's parentage. Melville, Jacobus, and Reed have already addressed this topic. Melville cited various visitation pedigrees, some with later additions, which assert that Thomas's parents were Robert Whitney and Elizabeth, daughter of Morgan ap William.9 This Robert Whitney is shown in some of the


5 Dean Crawford Smith, The Ancestry of Eva Belle Kempton 1878-1908, Part I: The Ancestry of Warren Francis Kempton 1817-1879, ed. Melinde Lutz Sanborn (Boston, 1994), 523-51, at 523-24 (hereafter cited as Smith and Sanborn, Kempton, l).
6 Winifred Lovering Holman, "Whitney Line," typescript, Winifred Lovering Holman Papers, New England Historical Genealogical Society Library, Boston, call# Mss A H63.
7 St. Mary Aldermary, London, parish register [FHL, film #374,484].
8 Middlesex Co., Mass., Deeds 1:192; this deed is also noted in Smith and Sanborn, Kempton, 1:530.
9 "The Visitation of Herefordshire, 1586, with additions of later date," Harleian MS. #1140, f. 66b, British Library, London; "The Visitation of Gloucestershire in 1623," Harleian MS.#1041, f. 45, British Library; "The Visitation of Herefordshire, 1586, with additions of later date," Harleian MS. #1159, f 65b, British Library; 'The Visitation of Herefordshire, 1586," Harleian MS.

[p. 251]

pedigrees as the third son of Sir Robert and Sibyl (Baskerville) Whitney of Whitney, co. Hereford.10 Jacobus and Reed proved conclusively on chronological grounds that Sir Robert could not be the grandfather of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster. Thus, those pedigrees are wrong in some part. Others do not state that relationship, however, but the pedigrees do seem to agree on the following information:

MORGAN AP WILLIAM = | ROBERT WHlTNEY = ELIZABETH ___________________________|______________________________________ | | | | | | 1 NlCHOLAS = 2 WILLIAM 3 THOMAS 4 RICHARD THOMAS = ANN MARGARET WHITNEY | WHITNEY WHlTNEY WHITNEY ROBAGE | WHITNEY WHITNEY | of Westminster | EUSTACE ________| |_________ WHITNEY | | ROBERT = MARY dau. of ROBERT = ELIZA WHITNEY | John Tower CHAUNDLER ROBAGE | JOHN WHITNEY aged 38 in 1676

Because of the chronological difficulties, Jacobus and Reed rejected the parentage of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster as stated by the pedigrees. We shall show below that that rejection was premature, and that Thomas was indeed the son of RobertB and Elizabeth Whitney. Instead, it is the parentage of Robert that is wrong in the pedigrees. This Robert Whitney could not have been a son of Sir Robert. Jacobus observed that "Mr. Melville's book does not produce the will or probate action on the estate of Robert (third son of Sir Robert); nor extracts from parish registers concerning this Robert and his children; nor any contemporary documents whatever regarding this family."11 We now can rectify those deficiencies.

In October 2006, Adrian Benjamin Burke, Esq., at our request, provided the following, which is an abstract of the will of Robert Whitney:

555/l Robert Whitney of Castleton, gent.. Will: made 17 July 1555; Executors: his wife Elizabeth and his son Nicholas Whytney; Beneficiaries: his unmarried daughters Elinor and Margaret and his son Thomas Whytney; Witnesses: Sir Androwe vicar of St[--] and [--] ap John and Howell David and William Morgan and John Wyllis. [damaged and faded] (f. 28v).12


1442, ff. 66, 67, 68b, British Library; "The Visitation of Herefordshire, 1569, with additions," Harleian MS. #1545, ff. 69-69b, British Library; and Joseph Jackson Howard and Joseph Lemuel Chester, eds., The Visitation of London anno domini 1633, 1634, and 1635, Harleian Soc. Pubs, 15 (London, 1880):157 (hereafter cited as London Visitation 1634). These are also reproduced in Melville, Whitney Ancestry, 265-67, 272-76.

10 Harleian MSS. #s 1041, f. 45, 1442, ff. 66, 67, 1545, ff. 68b-69, British Library.
11 Jacobus, "Pre-American Ancestries: John Whitney," TAG 10(1933-34):86.
12 M. A Faraday and E. J. L. Cole, eds., Calendar of Probate and Administration Acts

[p. 252] This is the same family group from the pedigrees: father Robert Whitney, wife Elizabeth, sons Nicholas and Thomas, and daughter Margaret. Five of the six names agree with the pedigrees, and we are supplied with another daughter, Elinor. Sons William and Richard are not mentioned, and neither is daughter Anne. Probably Anne was already married, based on the chronology discussed below. It seems likely that Nicholas and William had already been given their portions. Richard will be mentioned later. Note that Robert calls himself "gent.," consistent with his being the father of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster, gent., and grandfather of "Master" John1 of Watertown. This will links RobertB and Elizabeth Whitney of Castleton with ThomasB Whitney of Westminster. Furthermore, this will gives us a new location for the family: Castleton, Herefordshire. There are two places with that name, one in the parish of Ocle Pychard and the other in the parish of Clifford. We shall see that it is the latter that is meant. The remains of a motte-and-bailey castle can still be found at a place now known as Castleton Farm in Clifford, 1.5 miles southeast of and on the opposite side of the River Wye from Whitney-on-Wye, the home of the Whitneys of Whitney, and the source of their surname. This tells us that Robert Whitney of Castleton, gent., was most likely descended from a cadet branch of that family. We also note that the parish register of Clifford does not survive for the period in which these people were living, which explains the lack of parish register entries that Jacobus noted that Melville had not supplied.


We shall now investigate the children of Robert Whitney of Castleton, co. Hereford.

Ann (Whitney) Robage

The family of Ann (Whitney) Robage is fairly well outlined in the Chaundler visitation pedigree. She is listed as daughter of "Robert Whitney 2 sonne of ... Whitney of Whitney" with siblings Margery, Nicholas, Richard, Thomas, and William. She married Thomas Robage of Letton, Herefordshire. Their children were listed as "Giles Robach of London sonne and heir died s.p." and "Eliza, da. of Tho. Robage of Letton whose issue was heir to her brother Giles." Eliza married Robert Chaundler of Cumberton magna in com. Wigorn." Their children were eldest son Richard Chaundler, Master of Arts and Rector of Wilton, second son Robert Chaundler of London, living in 1634, and Mary, wife of John Hall of Stafford. Richard Chaundler married Mary, daughter of Humfry Thorne of Bish-


1407-1541 and Abstracts of Wills 1541-1581 in the Court Books of the Bishop of Hereford, microfiche (London: British Record Society, 1989), 297 (hereafter cited as Faraday and Cole, Hereford Probates). The existence of this will abstract was called to our attention by Paul C. Reed, FASG, of Salt Lake City.

[p. 253]

op's Caundle, Dorsetshire. Their children were eldest son Robert, Giles, eldest daughter Mary, wife of William Sharpe of Fuggleston, Wiltshire, and Gertrude.13

According to other pedigrees, Ann Whitney married Thomas Robage or Robridge of Lelton [correctly Letton], co. Hereford, a servant to William, Earl of Pembroke.14 She had two known children: Giles Robage, Esq., of London, and Eliza[beth], wife of Robert Chaundler of Cumberton Magna [correctly Great Comberton], co. Worcester.

The will of Giles "Rawbach" is of interest here; an abstract follows:

Giles Rawbach of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, London, Esq., dated 16 Nov. 1633, proved 4 Dec. 1633. Beneficiaries: niece Mary Hall wife of John Hall, an annuity of £20; nephew Richard Chaundler of Wilton, co. Wilts, clerk; my loving cousin Mr. Walter Vaughn, servant of the Earl of Pembroke; good friend Mr. Richard Nicholas, also servant to the Earl of Pembroke; cousin Mrs. Anne Wythens wife of Francis Wythens, Esq.; cousin Phillipp Proger, Esq.; his son James Proger; good friend Sir Thomas Morgan, knight; good friend Mr. John Bowles, servant to the Earl of Pembroke; my servant Joane Colley; Mr. Francis Parry; nephew Robert Chaundler of London, clothworker.15

Pertinent to this will is the marriage of Mary Chandler to John Hall, on 2 March 1616[/7], at St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, London.16 The relationships of the cousins mentioned are unknown.

It is significant that Giles Rawbach lived in the same parish in London where Thomas Whitney [Jr.], son of Thomas and Mary (Bray) Whitney of Westminster, was married to Margaret {Mogge) George, on 31 January 1632/3.17 Giles and Thomas [Jr.] were first cousins.

An abstract of the will of Giles's nephew, Rev. Richard Chaundler, M.A., follows:

Richard Chaundler, dated 12 Feb. 1651(/2], proved 27 Nov. 1657. Beneficiaries: Robert Chaund¬ler, eldest son; daughters Mary and Gartrude; daughter Mary Brooke and her children; daughter Gartrude Lyte; son Giles Chaundler; sister Mary Browne, who received an annuity of £20 from Uncle Giles Robage, Gent.18

The sister, Mary (Chaundler) Hall, of Stafford had remarried a Browne. They are the Richard Brown and Mary Hall, who married on 7 February 1640[/l] at St. Mary, Stafford, Staffordshire.19


13 London Visitation 1634, Harleian Soc. Pubs. 15(1880):157.

14 Harleian MSS. #s 1440. f. 66b; 1041, f. 45; 1159, f. 65b; 1545, f. 69; 1442, f. 68b; and London Visitation 1634, Harleian Soc. Pubs., 15(1880):157. See also Melville, Whitney Ancestry, 265, 266, 267, 275, 276.
15 Prerogative Court of Canterbury [PCC], PROB 11/164.
16 International Genealogical Index [IGI], extraction program, batch #M022632; original not seen.
17 Joseph Lemuel Chester and Geo[rge] J. Armytage, Allegations for Marriage Licences Issued from the Faculty Office of the Archbishop of Canterbury, Harleian Soc. Pubs., 24 (London, 1886):25.
18 PCC PROB 11/270.
19 St. Mary, Stafford, Stafford, parish register [FHL film# 1,040,876].

[p. 254]

Following is the record of the Rev. Richard Chaundler's matriculation at Ox¬ford University:

Chandler, Richard, of co. Worcester, pleb. Hart Hall, matric. 16 Nov. 1604, aged 19; B.A. 16 April 1608, M.A. 9 July 1612 (son of Robert, of Great Comberton, co. Worcester) rector of Wilton St Mary, Wilts., 1621, and of Ditchampton 1621, canon of Sarum 1634, father of Robert 1636. See Foster's Index Ecclesiasticus.20

This shows that Rev. Richard Chaundler was aged 19 in 1604, thus born about 1585. This year of birth implies that his mother, Elizabeth (Robage) Chaundler, was probably born before 1565. This in turn implies that her mother Anne (Whitney) Robage was probably born before 1545 (and possibly quite a while before). This accords well with the age of an older sister of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster.

Nicholas Whitney

The will of Nicholas Whitney, son of Robert Whitney of Castleton, follows:

In the name of God Amen. the Twentith daie of November in the yeare of our Lorde god 1587 I Nicholas Whytney of Castleton in the parishe of Clifforde in the Dyocesse of Hereforde beinge sicke in body and in my perfecte memory lawde and praise be unto Almightie god Do make and ordeyne this my last will and Testament in manner and fofme followinge that is to saye, Firste I commit my sowle unto almightie god my maker and redeemer and my body to be buryed in Christian buriall. Item I give, assigne and bequeathe All and singuler my messuages Lands tenements rents, rever'cons services and hereditaments whatsoever in the parisbe of Clifforde in the countie of Hereforde, And also all my goods, cattels, chattell, houwshold stuffe moveable and unmoveable whatsoever and in whose hands use and possession the same be To my beloved brother Richarde Whitney and to my Cosen John Morgan their heires and assignes forever, Which my brother Richarde Whitney and my Cosen John Morgan I do make and appointe to be my true and lawfull executors and do will that they shall sell all my said messuages, lands, and Tenements to the best they can, and with the money thearof comminge and with my said goods and chattells to paie and dischardge all my debts and the residue to use and bestowe accordinge to their discrec'on uppon my Children, Witnesses beinge present at the makinge hearofMyle John Watkyn, Thomas ap John, Thomas ap Owen, Nicholas Phillip, Johan vz [i.e., verch] dd Morgan, Margaret vz [verch] Harry, Elnor Whitney, Margaret Whitney, Morgan servaunte of Nicholas Whitney, and others.21

Here we see that the Whitneys' Castleton is indeed the one in the parish of Clifford. Nicholas mentions his brother Richard, who appears in the pedigrees, and a cousin John Morgan. Possibly the latter is related to Nicholas's mother, Elizabeth, daughter of Morgan ap William, or possibly to Nicholas 's wife. Other relationships are also possible. Witnessing his will are apparently two of his sisters, Elinor and Margaret Whitney, both of whom are still unmarried. Unfortunately, while he mentions his children, he does not name them. Since there is no mention of a wife, we suppose that she predeceased him. Nothing is known of her.

Nicholas Whitney of Castleton is also mentioned in another probate. The will of


20 Joseph Foster, ed., Alumni Oxonienses: The Members of the University of Oxford, 1500-1714, early ser., 4 vols. (Oxford and London, 1891-92), I:260.
21 Original wills, administrations and inventories for the Diocese of Hereford, 1517-1858 [FHL film #91,676].

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Richard Smithe, yeoman, of Mydlewoodd, is dated 4 April 1563 and was witnessed by Nicholas Witney and Thomas Wytney, among others.22 Middlewood is one mile south-southeast of Castleton, also in the parish of Clifford, co. Hereford. This Thomas Wytney was probably the Thomas Whitney of Middlewood, son of James Whitney of Clifford, Esq., who may have been about 20 in 1562, based on what he received in his father's will.23 There is no evidence of any other Nicholas Whitney in co. Hereford at that time other than Nicholas, son of Robert Whitney of Castleton. That puts Nicholas's birth before 1542, if he were 21 or more at that time. Like the approximate age of Ann (Whitney} Robage, Nicholas's age is consistent with his being an older brother of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster.

We have another mention of Nicholas Whitney of Castleton. According to the records of the Merchant Taylors' Company, on 23 June 1593, "Thomas Whitney, son of Nichols [sic] Whitney of Carsleton [sic], in the county of Hereford, gent., deceased, [was] apprenticed to Robert Davies of St. Andrews in Holborn." Also, on 19 July 1602, "Thomas Whitney [was] made free by Robert Davies, his master."24 Thomas is another son, otherwise unknown, apparently born about 1581. This is a further connection between Nicholas Whitney of Castleton and Thomas Whitney of Westminster: Both apprenticed sons to the Merchant Taylors' Company. Furthermore, it is interesting to speculate that Thomas Whitney of Westminster may have taken in this younger Thomas Whitney, his orphaned nephew and namesake.

With Nicholas Whitney having had two sons, Eustace (as noted in the pedigree) and Thomas, and with Thomas having been apprenticed in St. Andrews, Holborn, the following baptisms become significant: Anne Whitney, daughter of yeustis whitney, barber, baptized at St. Andrews, Holborn, on 17 February 1599[/1600]; and Willm. Whitny, son of Thomas Whitny, baptized there on 4 February 1607[/8].25

William Whitney

We have no proof of what became of William, son of Robert Whitney of Castleton, but there was a William Whitney of the appropriate age found in the parish of Isleworth, co. Middlesex. That is the place where Margaret Whitney, daughter of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster. was buried and where his son John1 Whitney


22 Faraday and Cole, Hereford Probates, 304: 562/1 Richard Smithe, yeoman, of Mydlewoodd in Clifford. Will: made 4 April 1563, no date of proof; executors: his eldest son William Smithe and his father-in-law David Harper of Kynley; beneficiaries: his wife Alice verch Davyd and his other three children Caterine and Elizabethe--both unmarried--and Edward; witnesses: Nicholas Witney and Thomas Wytney and Jenkinge Aprice and Philippe Richardis and Johan Harper.
23 PCC 47 Stevenson, PROB 11/47 [FHL film #91,942}.
24 Frederick Clifton Pierce, The Descendants of John Whitney, Who Came from London, England, to Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1635 (Chicago, 1895), 17.
25 St. Andrew Holborn, Middlesex, parish register (FHL film #374,348}.

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lived for several years. The parish register includes the following entries:26


    5 July 1574 Nicholas Whitneye, the sonne of Willyam Whitney.
    26 Feb. 1575[/6] Wyllyam Whitneye, the sonne of Willyam Whitneye.
    27 Sept. 1579 Roger Whitneye, the sonne of Willyam Whitneye.
    26 Nov. 1581 Lawrence Whitneye, the sonne of Willyam Whitneye.
    4 Jan. 1583[/4] Robert Whitneye, the sonne of Willyam Whitneye.
    3 Aug. 1586 Elizabeth Whitneye, the dawghter of Will yam Whitneye.
    12 July 1590 Gedeon Whitney, the sonne of Willyam Whitney.
    23 May 1619 John Whitne, Ellen his wife, had there daughter Mary baptiz.
    14 Sept. 1621 John Whitne, & Ellin his wife, had John there son baptized.
    6 Jan. 1623[/4] John Whitne, & Elinor his wife, had the[ir] sone Richard baptized.


    16 Sept. 1573 Willyam Whitney and Elizabeth Smyth.


    24 July 1573 Johan Whitneye, the wife of Willyam Whitneye.
    28 Oct. 1591 Willyam Whitneye.
    12 Jan. 1604(/5} Margaret the daughter of Thomas Whimeye.
    9 Jan. 1614(/5] Robert Whitney.

Notice the names of this William Whitney's children: they include Nicholas, Robert, and Elizabeth, and these onomastic clues provide additional evidence to connect him with the Castleton family. We believe that William Whitney of Isleworth was the brother of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster given in the pedigrees.

ThomasA Whitney

Thomas Whitney of Westminster was born before 1555, when the will of his father, Robert Whitney of Castleton, was written. The pedigrees list him as the third son of four. We estimate the birth of Thomas Whitney at about 1550. Details of ThomasA Whitney and his family have been previously covered in Melville, Jacobus, Reed, and especially in Smith and Sanborn.

Richard Whitney

What became of Richard after he was designated the chief heir in the will of his brother Nicholas in 1587 is unknown. The pedigrees list him as the fourth and youngest son of Robert Whitney of Castleton. Why was he not mentioned in his father's will in 1555? He may have been born posthumously, or at least after the writing of the will.

Margaret/Margery Whitney

Margaret Whitney was mentioned as an unmarried daughter in the will of her father, Robert Whitney, in 1555. Several pedigrees call her Margery; Margery and Margaret were sometimes considered independent names, but in this case, they must refer to the same woman. Two pedigrees say that she married William


26 Isleworth Parish registers, 1566-1875 [FHL film #585,395].

[p. 257]

Powell, one says William Poell, and one says --- Williams.27 None of them assign her any children. She is probably the Margaret Whitney who witnessed the will of her brother Nicholas in 1587. We have unable to identify her husband(s) or trace her further.

Elinor Whitney

Like her sister Margaret, she was mentioned as an unmarried daughter in the will of her father, Robert Whitney, in 1555, and was still unmarried when she apparently witnessed the will of her brother Nicholas in 1587. She is not mentioned in any of the pedigrees. We suspect that she died unmarried.


The ages of Nicholas, Ann, and Thomas show that none of them could be grand-children of Sir Robert Whitney of Whitney, whose son Robert was born no earlier than 1547, according to Jacobus.28 The age of Nicholas, especially, requires that their father, RobertB Whitney, husband of Elizabeth, was born before 1521 (and possibly well before). We believe that it was the misidentification of the father, RobertB Whitney, as the son of Sir Robert Whitney of Whitney that caused all three chronological difficulties. Once we realize that RobertB, husband of Elizabeth, could not be the same as Robert, third son of Sir Robert, the chronological difficulties disappear. Since several of the pedigrees agree on the parentage of Nicholas, Ann, ThomasA, and their siblings, and since there are no chronological difficulties with their being those children of Robert Whitney of Castleton and wife Elizabeth mentioned in his will, we accept those parts of the pedigrees.

ROBERTB WHlTNEY, gentleman, of Castleton, co. Hereford, was born say 1500. His will was dated 16 July 1555 and proved in 1555, so he died in the latter half of that year. He married ELIZABETH, daughter of Morgan ap William. Her birth date is unknown; she died after the date of her husband's will. If she remarried, we have found no record of it.

Robert Whitney paid subsidy taxes in 1542, 1545, and 1547 at The Bache (now The Bage), Clifford Parish, co. Hereford, 3 miles south-southeast of Castleton. For example, the subsidy tax of 1547 was paid by Rob[er]tus Whyteneye de Castelton on £3 worth of lands.29


27 Harleian MSS. #s 1140, f. 66b, l. I 59, f. 65, and 1442, f. 68b [Powell]; Harleian MS. #1545, f. 69 [Poell]; London Visitation 1634, Harleian Soc. Pubs., 15 (1880):157 [Williams].
28 Jacobus, "Pre-American Ancestries: John Whitney," TAG 10(1933-34):84-88.
29 M. A. Faraday, ed., Herefordshire Taxes in the Reign of Henry VIII, Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club (Herefordshire, 2005), 153, 256, 270, 369-70. [Paul C. Reed suggests that the other Robert Whitney in this subsidy is Robert, son of James Whitney of Clifford (d. 1562) with his wife Sibyl Parry, sister of Blanche Parry, the beloved nurse of Queen Elizabeth I. The authors, however, point out that the two Robert Whitneys taxed at The Bage in the 1540s may have been

[p. 258]

Children of RobertB and Elizabeth Whitney, order uncertain:

i. ANN WHITNEY, b. say 1535; m. before 1555, THOMAS ROBAGE of Letton, co. Here¬ford. Known children:
l. Giles Robage, d. s.p., will dated 16 Nov. 1633, proved Dec. 1633, described as Giles Rawbach of St. Gregory by St. Paul's, London, Esq.
2. Eliza Robage, b. say 1560; m. Robert Chaundler of Comberton Magna, co.

Worcester. Known children (order uncertain):

a. Richard Chaundler, M.A., b. ca. 1585; rector of Wilton, co. Wilts., will dated 12 Feb. 1651[/2], proved 27 Nov. 1657; m. Mary Thome, daughter of Humphry Thorne of Bishop's Caundle, Dorset.

Children: 1. Robert Chaundler. 2 .. Mary Chaundler, m. (I) St. Mary, Wilton, Wiltshire, 4 July 1631, William Sharp30 ofFuggleston, Wilts.; m. (2) - Brooke. 3. [Gertrude Chaundler, m. - Lyte by the time of her father's will, but She may also be the Gertrude Chandler whom. St. Mary, Wilton; Wiltshire, 7 May 1640, Henry Parsons. 4. Giles Chaundler, bp. St. Mary, Wilton, 17 Jan. 1626(/7].

b. Robert Chaundler, clothworker of London, living 1634.
c. Mary Chandler, m. (1) St. Nicholas Cole Abbey, London, 2 March 1616(/7], John Hall of Stafford; m.(2) St. Mary, Stafford, Stafford¬shire, 7 Feb. 1640(/1], Richard Browne.
Known children: 1. Rabisa Hall, bp. St. Mary, Stafford, 7 Feb. 1618(/9}. 2. John Hall, bp. St. Mary, Stafford, 28 Jan. 1620[/l].
ii. NICHOLAS WHITNEY, b. say 1538, d. 1587; m. - -.

Known children:

1. Eustace Whitney, apparently the barber of St. Andrew Holborn.
2. Thomas Whitney, b. ca. 1581 (based on apprenticeship dates), Citizen and Merchant Taylor of London.
iii. WILLIAM WHITNEY, b. say 1542, bur. Isleworth, co. Middlesex, 28 Oct. 1591; probably the one whom. (l) JOHAN-, who was bur. Isleworth, 24 July 1573; m. (2) Isleworth, 16 Sept. 1573, ELIZABETH SMITH.

Children with (1), if any, are unknown. Children with (2), all events in Isleworth:

1. Nicholas, bp. 5 July 1574.
2. William, bp. 26 Feb. 1575[/6].
3. Roger, bp. 27 Sept. 1579.
4. Lawrence, bp. 26 Nov. 1581.
5. Robert, bp. 4 Jan. 1583/4, apparently bur. 9 Jan. 1614(/5].
6. Elizabeth, bp. 3 Aug. 1586.
7. Gideon, bp. ("Gedeon") 12 July 1590.
iv. ELINOR WHITNEY, b. say 1546, unmarried in 1587. No further record found.
v. THOMASA WHITNEY, b. say 1550, of Westminster; bur. St. Margaret's, Westminster, 20 May 1637; m. there, 12 May 1583, MARY BRAY. They were the parents of John1 Whitney of Watertown, Mass.
vi. MARGARET WHITNEY, b. say 1553; unmarried in 1587, but m. WILLIAM POWELL, WILLIAM POELL, or --- WILLIAMS, depending on which pedigree you believe. Not traced further.


RobertB Whitney (d. 1555) and his father RobertC Whitney. It appears that Robert of Clifford's eldest brother Eustace Whitney (d. 1599), the heir at Clifford, first appeared in the subsidy in 1547 as well, but the first part of his name is missing or illegible.]
30 Wilton, Wiltshire, parish register [FHL film #1,279,340].

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vii. RICHARD WHITNEY, b. say 1556, living in 1587. No further record found.

As we noted above, this construction puts the birth date of ThomasA Whitney of Westminster not far from 1550. Previous authors, attempting to connect to or disconnect from Sir Robert Whitney of Whitney, have pointed out that Thomas Whitney of Westminster must have been born before 1562,31 but no one con¬sidered that he might have been born much earlier than that. He was married in his early 30s, and died in his upper 80s.


A previously unseen document has been found giving the name of the father of RobertB Whitney of Castleton. It is a chancery suit brought in May 1659 by Nicholas Whitney against Sir Robert Whitney of Whitney. In this suit, the plaintiff demands that Sir Robert produce documents relative to the ownership of certain lands which long ago had belonged to Nicholas's grandfather, RobertC Whitney. They were to pass to one Thomas Whitney (relationship not stated, but perhaps a son of RobertC) and his heirs, but the said Thomas Whitney had died without issue, and the property had passed to Nicholas's father RobertB Whitney. The last named had requested the documents from Sir Robert's father Robert Whitney of Whitney about 60 years earlier, without success, and then both of them had died.32 In the same bundle is a similar suit of Richard Whitney "of Castelton," gent., son of RobertB Whitney "of Castelton," gent. deceased, also against Sir Robert Whitney of Whitney, concerning land in the lordship of Pencomb, Herefordshire (the manor of Pencombe was one of the hereditary lands of the Whitneys of Whitney). There are also two responses by Sir Robert Whitney to the complaints of Nicholas and Richard. That the Whitneys of Castleton descended from a cadet branch of the Whitneys of Whitney is clear from this, because the latter held the deeds, charters, and so on, for the lands occupied by the former.

There is another very significant mention of the Castleton Whitney family: in the will of Sir James Whitney of Whitney, dated 20 May 1587 and proved on 16 June 1587. He bequeaths all his lands, manors, and lordships to his brother Eustace Whitney of Whitney and his heirs male of his body lawfully begotten. Failing such heirs, everything was to go to the heirs male of the following, in this order:

1 GEORGE WHITNEY, testator's uncle.
2 WILLIAM WHITNEY, testator's uncle.


31 Reed, "Whitney Origins Revisited," TAG 69(1994):9.
32 "Whitney v. Whitney," 1558-1579, Hereford, C3 186/32 (especially part 4), Court of Chancery: Six Clerks Office: Pleadings, Series II, Elizabeth I to Interregnum, The National Archives, London.

[p. 260]

4 THOMAS WHITNEY of Castleton.
5 RICHARD WHITNEY, brother to the said Thomas.
6 JAMES WHITNEY of Clifford.
7 FRANCIS WHITNEY of London, gent.
8 EUSTANCE [sic] WHITNEY of Clifford.

In default of heirs male of all the above, everything was to go to "Quene Eliza¬beth, her heirs and successors, Kings and Quenes of this Realme forever."33

An analysis of this succession of heirs, using what is known about the Whitneys of Whitney and their cadet branches, now becomes important. We are sure that all were descendants of the Whitneys of Whitney, and we will see that they were named in a very specific order, from closest relatives to most distant ones. The pedigree chart below will help clarify the discussion that follows.

CONSTANCE TOUCHET = (1) ROBERT WH11NEY (2) = ELIZABETH VAUGHAN __________________________| ______________________|_______________________________ | | | | JOAN = ROGER JAMES = (1) BLANCHE (2) = Sir WILLIAM ROBERT | WHITNEY VAUGHAN WHITNEY | MILBOURNE HERBERT WHITNEY | of | |? | Whitney | Whitneys of Castleton | | ___________________________________________| | | |? | others? JOHN WHITNEY | | | Whitneys of Clifford ____________________________|________________________________ | | | | | ROBERT = MARGARET WATKIN = MARGARET JAMES ROBERT daughter WHITNEY | WYE WHITNEY | REESE WHITNEY WHITNEY of | | d.s.p. 1544 Whitney | Whitneys of Clyro ________|_________________________________________________________ | | | | | | Sir ROBERT = SIBYL JOHN CHARLES GEORGE = JULYAN WILLIAM | WHITNEY | BASKERVILLE WHITNEY WHITNEY WHITNEY | ----- WHITNEY | of | d.s.p. d.s.p. of Icomb | living d.s.p. | Whitney | /|\ 1587 | | ___________________________________________________| | | | ||| | JAMES WHITNEY RICHARD WHITNEY daughters ______|___________________________________________________________ | | | || Sir JAMES WHITNEY EUSTACE WHITNEY = MARGARET ROBERT WHITNEY daughters of Whitney of Whitney | VAUGHAN b. aft. 1547 will 1587 | d.s.p. before 1587 | later Whitneys of Whitney


33 PCC 38 Spencer; for a full transcription, see Melville, Whitney Ancestry, 169-78.

[p. 261]

The first heir of Sir James Whitney, who had no children of his own, was Eustace, his brother, the second son of their parents, Sir Robert and Sibyl (Baskerville) Whitney. The failure to mention other brothers or nephews is evidence that none were surviving at that time.

The next heirs after Eustace were Sir James's two uncles, George and William, the surviving brothers of Sir Robert.

The next heir was Thomas Whitney of Clyro, co. Radnor, Wales. His descent seems to be from Watkin Whitney, a great-uncle of Sir James; Watkin married Margaret, daughter and heiress of Jenkin Reese of Clyro, although we do not know the exact connection. Clyro is three and a half miles southeast of Whitney¬on-Wye, just across the current border in Wales.

Next come Thomas and Richard Whitney of Castleton, certain to be the two sons of RobertB Whitney of Castleton mentioned in his will and the visitation pedigrees, and grandsons of RobertC Whitney mentioned above. The former is our person of main interest, later called ThomasA Whitney "of Westminster." Perhaps he was one of those country gentlemen who also had a house in or near London. Sir James would think of him as "of Castleton," but he also lived in Westminster, his wife's home parish, where many of his children were baptized.

After Thomas and Richard is James Whitney of Clifford, Francis Whitney of London, and Eustace Whitney of Clifford, whose connection to the Whitneys of Whitney is more distant. That their ancestor was a second son of one of the line is suggested by heraldry. The Whitneys of Clifford bore the same arms as the Whitneys of Whitney, with a crescent for difference, which indicates (when it is used correctly) descent from a second son,34 at some point in the lineage. The earliest member of the Whitneys of Clifford that we can trace, a certain John Whitney of Gorsington, Clifford, was a contemporary of James Whitney of Whit¬ney, and we believe, but cannot yet prove, that John was a younger son of Sir Robert and Elizabeth (Vaughan) Whitney. The village of Clifford is two miles southwest of Whitney-on-Wye.

Thomas Whitney of Castleton and his brother Richard were more distant relatives than were the descendants of Watkin Whitney, a great-uncle of Sir James Whitney, yet closer than were the Whitneys of Clifford. The chronology implies that RobertC Whitney of Castleton was of the same generation as James and Blanche (Milbourne) Whitney. The most likely scenario is that he was a younger brother. We are hampered by the fact that no known document lists the younger brothers of James Whitney of Whitney or their descendants. That James Whitney of Whitney did have a younger brother named Robert is revealed by a document dated 28 September 1512:


34 Henry Austin Whitney, Memoranda Relating to Families of the Name of Whitney in England (Boston:, 1859), 3.

[p. 262]

Richard Welford, Robert Whitney, son of Robert Whitney, esq., deceased; William Wallewyn and Thomas ap Jenkyn gave as a gift to Simon Milbom, esq., John Breynton and Thomas Cockes, messuages, lands and tenements in the township of Clifford. Recites that the said lands were part of an estate in the township and lordship of Clifford purchased by John Milewater, esq., formerly of Stoke Edith, co. Hereford, and of which the said Richard Welford and the other parties of the first part were made feoffees by Sir John Lyngeyn and Eleanor, his wife, daughter and heiress of Thomas Milewater, deceased, to the use of William Herbert, esq." We propose that Robertc Whitney of Castleton was this younger brother of James Whitney of Whitney. We also propose that John Whitney ofGorsington, Clifford, was another, still younger, brother of James. We have not found proof of these postulated connections.

CONCLUSION Based upon the material above, we believe that we have resolved the chronological difficulties that existed in the previously proposed lineage of John1 Whit¬ney of Watertown, Massachusetts, and that we have uncovered his correct descent. The errors in the pedigrees came from identifying RobertB Whitney of Castleton with a younger son of the Whitneys of Whitney named Robert, while he was apparently a descendant of a different cadet branch. The concerns that Jacobus raised were valid and have now allowed us to uncover the true lineage of John1 Whitney of Watertown. ThomasA Whitney of Westminster was not a grandson of Sir Robert and Sibyl (Baskerville) Whitney, but instead probably a second cousin.

The proposed descent of the immigrant is:

l (perhaps) ROBERTD WHITNEY (ca. 1436-aft. 1492) of Whitney; m. (2) ELIZABETH VAUGHAN.
2 ROBERTC WHITNEY (say 1470- ) of perhaps Pencombe and Castleton; wife unknown.
3 ROBERTB WH11NEY (ca. 1498-1555) of Castleton; mELIZABETH, daughter of Morgan ap William.
4 THOMASA WHITNEY (say 1550-1637) of Castleton and Westminster; m. MARY BRAY.
5 JOHN1 WHITNEY (1592-1673) of Westminster, Isleworth, London, and Watertown; m. (1) ELINOR ----; m. (2) JUDAH (----) CLEMENT.

We would like to thank Adrian Benjamin Burke, Esq., for invaluable help in finding, gathering, and analyzing significant data that contributed greatly to this article.

Robert L. Ward (12236 Shadetree Lane, Laurel, MD 20708-2832) is a retired mathematician and a professional genealogist. Ti'm Doyle (4 Greens Ct., Frisco TX 75034) is a Senior Product Manager and online community moderator for Intuit, Inc. They co-host the Whitney Research Group website at <http://www.>.


35 Whitney and Clifford MSS. (ref GB 0222 WHC), item #208, University of Wales, Ban¬gor, Wales.

Rising, Marsha Hoffman, CG, FASG, "Abijah Gale (1730-1804)[:] Separating Two Men of the Same Name in Weston, Massachusetts," TAG 81(2006):300-303.

[p. 300]

New England town and vital records may appear to make genealogy simple. Using vital records, we can outline Abijah Gale's life from his birth in 1727, in-cluding the names of his parents, to the dates of his three marriages, and finally to his death in 1804:

Abijah Gale, son of Abraham & Esther, his wife, b. Weston, Mass., 5 July 1727.1
Abijah Gale of Weston m. 23 June l748, Abagail Amsden ofWestborough.2
Abijah Gale of Roxbury m. (int.) 22 Sept. 1753, Mary Gregory of Weston.3
Abijah Gale of Westborough m. 14 Nov. 1771, Susannah Allen ofWeston.4
Abijah Gale d. 18 JW1e 1804, aged 77, bur. Weston Cemetery. Next to his stone is one for "his wife" Susanna Gale, who d. 14 Jan. 1831, aged 91.5

We can assume, therefore, that Abijah Gale married for the first time when he was 21, lost his wife soon after the marriage, perhaps in childbirth, married a second time when 26 and the third time at 54. That was simple. Now, we need a list of Abijah' s children. As he appeared to have lived most of his life in Weston, we can expect they should all be listed in the vital records. Strangely, however, no children were recorded for Abijah in Weston, by any of his wives.

A standard New England work, Bond's Genealogies of Watertown (1855), states that Abijah moved to Westborough, where he had many children.6 As my interest was in his second wife, Mary Gregory, the important issue for me was to discover which children were by her. The trouble began when research moved to the Westborough vital records. Abijah Gale, resident of Westborough, bad thir-


1 [Mary Frances Pierce, ed.], Town of Weston: Births, Deaths and Marriages 1707-1850 ... (Boston, 1901), 20, 21 (hereafter cited as Weston VRs). 2 Weston VRs, 263. She was the daughter of Jacob Amsden (Middlesex Co., Mass., Deeds, 41:213 [a 1759 deed from Jacob to daughter Abigail Gale]; Middlesex Co. Deeds, 55:444 [division of the estate of Jacob Amsden to only heirs, his wife Lydia and daughter Abigail Gale]. 3 Weston VRs, 86. 4 Weston VRs, 131. 5 Inscription for Elijah: Weston Old Burying Ground, photo of tombstone taken by author, Oct. 1993; inscription for Susanna: transcribed at the cemetery by the author. 6 Henry Bond, Genealogies of the Families and Descendants of the Early Settlers of Water¬town, Massachusetts, including Waltham and Weston ... , 2nd ed., 2 vols. in 1 (Boston 1860), 1 :230 (hereafter cited as Bond, Watertown). [Editors' note: This edition comprises the original 1855 sheets with new title pages for each volume and a new introduction for the first.)

[p. 301]

teen children, but by only two wives, Abigail and Susanna. Abigail's last child was born in 1763, and she died on 27 February 177l.7 What about Mary Gregory who Abijah married in 1753? As the Abijah Gale of Westborough was still having children by his wife Abigail at that time, the only answer is that there were two men with the same name. There was an earlier clue. When Abijah Gale married Mary Gregory in Weston, the vital records said that he was of Roxbury. Thus, rather than a temporary residence for the Weston man, Roxbury seems to have been the origin of the second man of the same name. No Roxbury records, however, reveal anyone by the name of Gale.

Returning to the woman of interest, Mary Gregory, we find that she was the illegitimate daughter of Susannah Whitney, born on 29 December 1732 in Watertown.8 On 18 August 1732, Susannah Whitney, "singlewoman and spinster," appeared before Francis Fulton, justice of the peace, and confessed herself guilty of fornication, which she stated had been committed with Abraham Gregory, and that he was the father of her "bastard child by him begotten of her body of wch she is Now bigg." The same day Abraham Gregory, Susannah's first cousin, also appeared and provided a bond of £100.9

Rather than marry Susannah, he agreed to provide for the child. Although he may have done so for a time, by 1735 Susannah must have tired of waiting for financial support and sued Abraham. On 12 March 1735, Abraham Gregory of Weston, husbandman, was ordered to pay £44 to Susannah Whitney and her heirs. He agreed to do so, and Tabitha Parkhurst witnessed his bond.10

It was more than a year later, specifically on 31 May 1736, that Susannah Whitney and Abraham Gregory were married.11 They had another six children and lived together until her death on 14 August 1753 in Weston.12 He died there before 25 March 1757.13

Mary Whitney probably assumed her father's surname after her parents' mar riage. In 1754 as Mary Gregory, she was paid £2 19s. 6d. by the town of Weston for caring for Abraham Gregory's family.14 This Mary Gregory is known to be the woman who married Abijah Gale because the town of Weston paid Abijah Gale's wife £2 2s. 16d. for again taking care of Abraham Gregory's family between 1754


7 Vital Records of Westborough, Massachusetts to the End of the Year 1850 (Worcester, Mass., 1902), 51,239. 8 Bond, Watertown, 2:646. 9 Middlesex Co., Mass., court files, folio 77, A-3. 10 Middlesex Co. court files, 147, A-2. 11 Bond, Watertown, 2:646. 12 Weston Vital Records, 16 [FHL film #892,241}. 13 Middlesex Co., Mass., Probates, 37:298. 14 Town of Weston Records First Precinct 1746-1754 and of the Town, 1754-1803 (Boston, 1893),31.

[p. 302]

and 1755.15 This was the last record for the couple in Weston. But the contempo¬rary index of the town records refers to Abijah and his wife as "of Oxford." The Gale family in Oxford was headed by Ebenezer Gale, who had moved from Watertown to Oxford about 1733. He sold his last parcel in Watertown in 172816 and purchased land in Oxford in 1744.17 Oxford is in the south central part of Worcester County, Massachusetts. Bond's Genealogies of Watertown briefly mentions an Ebenezer Gale born on 30 April 1686, son of Abraham and Sarah (Fiske) Gale, who married on 27 December 1709, Elizabeth Green(e).18 Bond shows baptisms of children, beginning with Elizabeth on 25 May 1712 and ending with David on 23 September 1733, but none for a child Abijah, and no location for the events.

He reports an Abigail Gale baptized on 10 May 1730 to Ebenezer and Elizabeth, and lists the births and baptisms of nine other children of Ebenezer and Elizabeth.19 The baptism of the child Abigail was repeated by George Gale in the Register in 186420 and by George Daniels in his History of Oxford (1892), although he also includes "Abijah b. ca. 1728."21 Further research, however, showed that Abijah, son of Ebenezer Gale, was baptized at Watertown West Meetinghouse by the Rev. William Williams on 10 May 1730.22


15 Town of Weston Records First Precinct 1746-1754 and of the Town. 1754-1803 (Boston, (893), 44.
16 Middlesex Co., Mass., Deeds, 28:428. On 17 May 1728, Ebenezer Gale of Watertown sold to Samuel Harrington 12 acres in Western precinct. 17 Worcester Co., Mass., Deeds, 19:201, Jonathan Keney to Ebenezer Gale. Daniels reports that Ebenezer Gale purchased land in Oxford in 1734 (George F. Daniels, History of the Town of Oxford, Massachusetts, with Genealogies and Notes on Persons and Estates (Oxford, 1892), 515 (hereafter cited as Daniels, History of Oxford). The first deed I was able to locate was a mortgage dated 1744 from Ebenezer Gale "[i]n consideration that Jonathan Kenny of oxford ... husband¬man pay ... Ebenr Learned and Samuel Davis" £42 with interest, for a home lot of 40 acres in Oxford (Worcester Co. Deeds, 19:200). Thus, there must have been an earlier purchase, perhaps recorded in the town records to which I did not have access.
18 Bond, Watertown, 1:229.
19 Bond, Watertown, 1:229. Bond does not give a location for the baptisms of the children, but the records for them were found by Robert Charles Anderson, FASG, in the transcribed Waltham church records housed in the archives of the Waltham public library (the area that became Waltham in 1738 was previously the West Precinct of Watertown). The baptisms of Elizabeth, Hannah, and Prudence were recorded correctly by Bond. The records, however, show Ebenezer bp. 23 Feb. 1723/4 and Lydia bp. 4 June 1722. The transcribed church record does list the bap¬tism for Abijah rather than Abigail with a note that "Bond has Abigail." The Waltham church records also report a 9 Dec. 1714 baptism for Grace "daughter of Richard." As Richard's wife was giving birth to Thankful in Dec. 1714, the record for Grace may apply to Ebenezer's child Grace, b. Watertown, 12 Dec. 1713 in Watertown.
20 George Gale, "The Gale Family," The New England Historical and Genealogical Register 18(1864):189-97, at 191.
21 Daniels, History of Oxford, 515.
22 Baptisms by the Rev. William Williams, Appendix to Weston Church Records, Weston VRs, 524. Bond also overlooked the baptism of Patience, daughter of Ebenezer Gale, on 29 April 1722 in the same record (523).

[p. 303]

Military service records from the French and Indian War confirm the existence of two contemporaries named Abijah Gale. One Abijah Gale served from Oxford, Massachusetts, in that war. He served under General Abercrombie in the assault on Ticonderoga and participated in the capture of Fort Fontenac, now Kingston, Canada. He was discharged in Little Falls, New York, on 9 November 1758. He continued to re-enlist each spring until the close of the war in the fall of 1763.23 He is said to have died about 1806 in Hadley, Massachusetts, at the home of his son, Levi.24 "Levy" Gale was head of household in Hadley, Hampshire County, Massa¬chusetts, in 1800. He had a male and female over 45 in his household, both of whom were gone by 1810.25 "Old Mrs. Gale" died on 21 June 1807 in Hadley,26 but Abijah is not mentioned in the vital records, nor did he leave probate.

Abijah Gale of Weston entered the service in June 1756 to fight in the French and Indian War. In 1757 he was in that part of the company not surrendered to the French at Ft. William Henry, and, with 132 others in Col. Frye's Regiment, is said to have deserted on 12 August, three days after the surrender of the fort. Abijah re-enlisted in the service again the following spring.27 He died on 18 June 1804, aged 77, in Weston and is buried in the Weston town cemetery.28

Two errors, one in the published Weston vital records, which recorded Roxbury instead of Oxford (although it is possible that Abijah had been in Roxbury very briefly), and the other, in a well-known and generally reliable published New England source, which recorded Abigail instead of Abijah, led to the confusion between the two men and the difficulty in tracing Abijah Gale of Oxford.

I am grateful to Robert Charles Anderson for examining the transcribed Waltham church records and to him and Alvy Ray Smith for reviewing the article.

Marsha Hoffman Rising, CG, FASG (<>) contributing editor of TAG, is currently President of the American Society of Genealogists. She has just completed a study of the early settlers of the Missouri Ozarks (see review in TAG 8l[April 2006]:154-55).


23 George Gale, The Gale Family Records in England and the United States ... (Galesville, Wis., 1866), 54 (hereafter cited as Gale, Gale Family Records).
24 Gale, 'Gale Family Records, 55.
25 1800 Federal Census, Hadley, Northampton Co., Mass., p. 493.
26 Elizabeth Phelps Diary, 1795-1815, Records of Births and Deaths, Hadley, Mass. [FHL film #363,889).
27 Gale, Gale Family Records, 61.
28 Weston Cemetery, photo of tombstone taken by author, 1989.

Copyright © 2020, Robert L. Ward and the Whitney Research Group.

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