Archive:The Ancestry of John Whitney, Chapter IV, Part 2

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Melville, Henry, A.M., LL.B., The Ancestry of John Whitney: Who, with His Wife Elinor, and Sons John, Richard, Nathaniel, Thomas, and Jonathan, Emigrated from London, England, in the Year 1635, and Settled in Watertown, Massachusetts; the First of the Name in America, and the One from Whom a Great Majority of the Whitneys Now Living in the United States Are Descended (New York, NY: The De Vinne Press, 1896).

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100         The Ancestry of John Whitney

   At the end is the Schedule with the names of the
twenty-five offenders, among them:

   James Baskerville, of Erdesley, County of Hereford,
Esquire.
   Robert Whitney, of Whitney, in the same county, Esquire;
   Thomas Monyngton, of Sarnesfeld, in the same county,
Esquire.

   As all of these are named among the principal
citizens of Herefordshire, in the election certificate
above set out, of a date nine years later, it is evident
that they had not forfeited all their lands and tene-
ments, and that they did not "stand atteint" nor
suffer "enprisounment terme of their lyves."
   The explanation of this remarkable presentment
was simply that the parliament was Lancastrian, and
the persons named, influential men, perniciously ac-
tive on the side of York.1 It was natural enough that
the men of the Marches should wear the white rose,
for the leader of that faction, the Earl of March,
was their neighbor and feudal chief.
   Instead of giving themselves up, in response to the
proclamation at London, they rose in arms and bid
defiance to the reigning house.
   The Earls of Pembroke and Ormond, with a great
force, largely composed of Welsh and Irish, were
sent to subdue them, and battle was joined in the
Marches, four miles from Wigemore, at a place now
called Mortimer's Cross, on Candlemas Day, 1461.

   Edward of Marche, the Duke his father slaine,
   Succeeded him whilst things thus badly sort.
   Gathering an army, but yet all in vaine,
   To ayde his father, for he came too short.

   1 Edward Duke of York, and others of his principal supporters, were
attainted by the same Parliament at about the same time.


       Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          101

   Hearing that Pembroke, with a warlike train,
   Was coming towards him--touch'd with the report--
   His valiant Marchers for the field prepares,
   To moot the Earle, if to approach he dares.
       .     .     .     .     .
   Now the Welsh and Irish so their weapons weel'd
   As tho' themselves they conquerors meant to call.
   Then are the Marchers masters of the field,
   With their brown bills, the Welshmen so they maul.
   Now the one, now the other likely were to yeeld;
   These like to fly, then those were like to fall;
   Until at length, as fortune pleas'd to guide,
   The conquest turn'd upon the Yorkist' side.1

   Pembroke had four thousand men killed and the
rest utterly routed; and on March 4, 1461, Edward,
entering London at the head of the victors, was pro-
claimed king.
   The war went on, however, intermittently, for
twenty-five years longer, till Bosworth Field, August
22, 1485; and meanwhile each man of prominence in
England, though continuing to pursue his ordinary
vocations, armed every servant and retainer, and
kept his house in constant readiness for defense.
   A striking picture of the condition of affairs at
Whitney has been drawn for us by no less a person
than the famous Welsh bard Lewis Glyn Cothi, who
flourished in the reigns of Henry VI., Edward IV.,
Richard III., and Henry VII.
   It is in a poem dedicated to Robert Whitney, and
written at his castle on the occasion of his marriage
with Alice, daughter of Thomas, and grand-daughter
of Roger Vaughan. Her great-grandfather was no

   1 Drayton's "Miseries of Queen Margarite."


102         The Ancestry of John Whitney

less a person than Sir David Gam, the hero of Agin-
court (1415).
   As has been said, King Henry V. was born at Mon-
mouth, in the Marches, on the banks of the Wye,
and consequently had for his most devoted adherents
some of his old neighbors and boyhood friends. To
the French war there followed him, as personal es-
quires, David Gam, Gam's son-in-law, Roger Vaughan,
of Bredwardine, and his kinsman Walter Llydd, of
Brecknock.
   The morning before Agincourt Gam was sent out
as a scout to ascertain the number of the enemy, and
finding the whole country covered, as far as the eye
could reach, with a forest of glittering lances, out-
numbering the English ten to one, he reported
laconically:

      There are enough to be
      Killed, enough to be taken,
      And enough to run away.

   When the battle began, the French charged down
with terrific force upon the English center, vying with
each other to first reach and slay Henry, who con-
spicuously led his own forces. The latter went down
in the rush, and all would have been over in a few
minutes, had not the three Welshmen flung them-
selves in front of him and performed prodigies of
valor. They are said to have slain no less than nine-
teen knights, including a duke, and their sovereign's
life was saved, but at the sacrifice of their own.
   In a lull of the battle, after the French were rolled
back in confusion, they were found just alive in the
midst of a heap of the slain, and, before they breathed

        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          103

their last, they were held up to receive from the king
the honor of knighthood.1
   The descent of Alice was as follows: Sir Roger
Vaughan, of Bredwardine, by Gladys Gam, had a son
Thomas Vaughan of Hergest, who married Ellen
Gothyn (their tomb appears at Kington Church), and
had Alice, eldest daughter.2

    SIR DAVID GAM. =
                   |________
                            |
    SIR ROGER VAUGHAN, = Gladys.
      of Bredwardine.  |
           ____________|
          |
    THOMAS VAUGHAN, = Ellen Gethyn.
      of Hergest.   |
                    |___
                        |
    ROBERT WHITNEY, = Alice.
      of Whitney.

   The fact. that the lady was a countrywoman of his,
and of so famous a family, may have had much to
do with the enthusiasm of the bard, though there

   1 Duncumb's "History of Herefordshire," vol. 1, p. 89.
   2 "Genealogies of Morgan and Glamorgan," by George T. Clark, p.
227.   Thomas Vaughan was Constable of this Manor of Huntington.
"His feudal ties and near relationship to the Earl of Pembroke natur-
ally inclined him in the struggle between the rival houses to the house
of York. Thus it was that he and his brother, Sir Roger, joined the army
of ten thousand Welshmen and met their death in the battle so fatal
to the Welsh of Danesmoor, near Banbury, on the 26th of July, 1469."
"Archaeologia Cambrensis," 4th series, vol. ii, p. 24.
   The translation of inscription on tomb is as follows: "This tomb
was erected to the memory of Thomas Vaughan of Hergest, and Ellen
Gethen, his wife. He was son of Sir Roger Vaughan of Bredwardine,
Knight, and died in the year 1469, aged 69 years. The said Sir Roger
Vaughan married Gladys, daughter of Sir David Gam, who was knighted
by Henry V., in Agincourt Field, 1415."


104         The Ancestry of John Whitney

is reason to believe that the bridegroom, like his
ancestors and successors, was personally popular
with his Welsh neighbors.
   The poem is found, at page 27, in "The Poetical
Works of Lewis Glyn Cothi," published for the Royal
Cambrian Institution, Oxford, 1837, and, with edi-
torial notes, reads as follows:

   IX. An epithalamium addressed to Robert Whitney, Lord of Whit-
ney, in the County of Hereford, on his marriage with Ales (Alice),
daughter of Thomas ap Roger (Dosp. I, 6, 7), Lord of Herast.

   Priodasgerdd Rhobert Whitnai, Arglwydd Chwitnai O
swydd Henfordd.
   The bard compliments the Lord of Whitney on his having
married a lady who belonged to so celebrated a family as
that of the Vaughns. His choice he compares to the choice
of him who would prefer the sun to a star.  He alludes to
his property--his mansion--and to the number of spear-
men under his command. He pays the bride a compliment
on the neatness and richness of her dress. Indeed, through-
out the whole ode he compliments, first one, then the other, in
a way which could not but prove gratifying to both of them.

      O Ddu'w! pwy 'n nglàn Gwy a gai arabedd
      Mastr Robert Whitnai;
      Eryr ystans o 'i groesdai
      O Drysel âch heb dras lai.4

      Mae tras priodas, heb ddim pryder mwy,
      Merch Tomas ab Rosser;
      Meistress Alis dewiser,
      Mal dewis haul yn mhlaid ser.8

      Ser ar bob cwrser o 'r ewrt,
      A llyn a bwyd er llanw bort;
      Oer wyv pan welwyv ei wart,
      Od air heb dyrav Rhobert.12

   12 Od air heb=os eir heibiaw.


        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          105

      Mae y rneistr mau mewn tyrau'r tad,
      Mwnaui 'n ei ogylch mwy no Newgad;
      Meirch a gweywyr òn yn mraich y gâd,
      Mwy no rhiv y plwyv mewn arvau plâd.16

      Mae Meistres Alis mewn twr cacad,
      Mwnai a thrysor main a thrwsiad;
      Hi a wisg ddywllun ddamasc ddillad,
      Siamled o velved un ddyvaliad.20

      Ac a arwedd aur uwch grudd a iad,
      Ac a wisg garlond, ac ysgarlad;
      Ac a eilw Iesu am oes gleisiad,
      A naw oes y dwg hono ystâd.24

      Mastr Rhobert hael a eilw Elvael wlad,
      Meistr yw yn rhoi ym ystôr yn rhad;
      Mae'n Ustus cyviawn yma'n wastad,
      Mae yn eiste ar swrn o'r mastr Siad.28

      Ni bo a brovo iddo ddim brad,
      Ni bydd dragywydd achos, nis gad;
      Tra llong âg angor ar vôr, new vâd;
      Tra vo lliw awyr, tra vo lleuad.32

      Mae'n llys yr arglwydd pawb a'i gwyddiad,
      Hynsmn a Ywmenyn ddiymwad;
      Cwrseriaid euraid yn gweryrad,
      Cyrn, bwa i ryvel, ceirw yn brevad.36

   20 Sinmled, camlet, or camblet: a fine stuff, composed of warp and
woof, originally made of camel's hair only.
   22 Garlond, a garland: coronbleth.
   28 Mae yn eiste, etc. "He sits in judgment upon many a Chade," that
is, upon many of the disaffected. Chade alluded to here is probably
the same as Jack Cade, a native of Ireland, who in 1450 excited a re-
bellion, and, at the head of 20,000 men of Kent, entered London in
triumph, under the assumed name of John Mortimer. But afterward,
a price being set on his head, he was killed by one Iden, a gentleman
of Sussex, and many of his followers were capitally punished for their
rebellion.--Hume.


106         The Ancestry of John Whitney

      Milgwn yn Whitnai, can' bytheiad;
      Cynyddion ddigon yn ddiwygiad;
      Ceginau Ystwyll, cogau'n wastad;
      Bwtri, seleri, seiri'n siariad.40

      Ac o'r llys gwerin yn chwerthiniad,
      Ac o'r tûr can'--wr heb gael cenad;
      Ac o'r wraig egin, a llin benllad;
      Ac o'r gwr eppil, a hil, a hâd.44

      Amen! hil a had val y mynai hon,
      O hwn arglwydd Whitnai;
      Yn eu llys yn lle osai,
      Ac yn eu tûr gwyn a'u tai.48

      Tai rhwydd v' arglwyddes, tai v'arglwydd, val tes
      Tyrau y santes ydyw'r seintwar;
      Tûr mastr Rhobert ynn, tûr gwell no'r Tûr Gwyn,
      Tûr claerwyn Gwynvryn y gwr gwâr.52

      Pa dai yn bump dîs sy hwnt val Sandwis?
      Bond taui i Alis ar ben talar?
      Y gaer yn nglan Gwy, uv â hon yn vwy
      No thyrau'r Sioswy, no thai'r Sisar.56

      Nid gwaeth, ar draethen, tai Nudd Whitnai wen
      No thai elusen a wnaeth Lasar;
      Nid ynt waeth ill dau am win i minnau,
      No blodau'r Deau drwy holl daiar.60

   51 Tûr Gwyn, "the White Tower," in London.
   52 Gwynvryn, Whitney, in Herefordshire.
   53 Sandwis, Sandwich, one of the Cinque Ports.
   57 Nudd, Nudd Hael, one of the three generous men of Britain:
hence a bardic epithet for a generous person.


        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          107

      Rhwyddach en rhoddion, o law hwn val hon,
      No dwr yr avon i'r gwiriou gwâr;
      Teg oedd anrhegu aur i Vair a vu,
      I weled Iesu o Valdassar.64

      O'u mwn aur, a'n medd; o'u da ill denwedd;
      O'u gwledd mi'm gomedd y ddau gymmhar;
      Rhent o'u tir hwyntau a gawn, a gynau,
      Amryval lysiau, bwydau ar bâr.68

      Amryw vwyd môr vydd, mewn bro a mynydd,
      Mwy o wirodydd, amryw adar;
      Arthur ni'm gwrthyd, un yw hwn o hyd,
      A hono hevyd yw Gwenhwyvar.72

      Och i'r Sais ucho, o'u caer nis cars;
      Ac oerchwedl iddo'r Cymmrs nis câr;
      Deiniol, sain Denis, Cedwyn, a'u cedwis
      Dewi, Non, Elis, Dwynwen, Ilar.76


   64 Baldassar, or Baltassar; a feigned name given to one of the three
wise men of the East.
   68 Ar bâr = ar ddarpar.
   75 Deiniol, a saint, who founded a college at Bangor in 516, which
was made a bishopric; and he was ordained the first bishop of Dyvrig.
Sain Denis, Saint Denis.
   Cedwyn, a saint and founder of some churches in Wales abont the
beginning of the seventh century. Llan Gedwyn, in Denbighshire, is
dedicated to him.
   76 Dewi, Saint David, the patron saint of Wales. He was made
archdeacon of Caerlion in 522, on the resignation of Dyvrig. He
founded the See of St. David's about the year 523.  Nou, the mother
of St. David. Elis = Elias = Elijah.
   Dwynwen, a saint, the daughter of Brychan Yrth; feigned by the
bards to be the goddess of love. Llanddwyn, in Anglesey, is dedicated
to her, which was much resorted to in former times by votaries bring-
ing offerings to procure the good offices of Dwynwen to soften the
hard hearts of the objects of their affections.
   Ilar, Saint Hilary. Saint Hilary, in Glamorganshire, and Llan Ilar,
In Cardiganshire, are dedicated to him.


108         The Ancestry of John Whitney

      Iddynt oes Moesen, a hyd ocs Noc hen;
      A dwyoes deubren, derwen a dâr;
      Ac iechyd i gychwyn a rydd Mair iddyn',
      A hir oresgyn, a hwyr ysgar.80
 
      Hwyr yr ysgaront, a hwy eu heinioes
      No'r hynav hyd Vynwy;
      I roi aur îr ar aerwy
      I lenwi'r gwin ar lan Gwy.84
      
   Fortunately a translation of this was printed in
1880, in the "Archaeologia Cambrensis,"1 a publica-
tion before alluded to, devoted to the antiquities of
Wales. The reader can make his own comparison
for testing the correctness.

        AN EPITHALAMIUM OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY.

       From the Welsh of Lewis Glyn Cothi's Works.

   Is there one on the banks of the Wye has the humour
      Of Squire Robert Whitney?  Whom God ever bless!
   Of the cross-figured mansion, how staunch is the eagle!
      From Trysol he takes his descent, and no less.

   His bridal descent--not a thought it needs further--
      Thomas Roger's2 own daughter is her pedigree:
   'T is enough if he choose Mistress Alice to marry;
      Of a sun among stars his selection will be.

   Of the Court every courser with stars is bespangled;
      The liquor and viands there a harbour would fill;
   Past the strong tow'rs of Robert, whene'er I 've to travel,
      His watch and his ward make my blood to run chill.

   1 Fourth Series, xi, p. 227.
   2 A misleading translation.  It should be "Thomas ap Roger's
daughter"; i. e., daughter of Thomas the son of Roger.


        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          109

   This master of mine 's in the tow'rs of his father;
      Newgate holds not the money about him in coin:
   The parish can't number his men in plate-armour,
      And his steeds and his spearmen the battle to join.

   There sits Mistress Alice all retired in her bower,
      With her money and treasures so grandly array'd:
   On a Monday she puts on a fine robe of damask,
      Of camlet like velvet, with pattern display'd.

   O'er her cheek and her temple, of gold her attire is:
      She wears garlands and scarlet, in dignity great:
   For the salmon's own lifetime1 she 'll call upon Jesus,
      For nine lives of a man shall she bear her estate.

   All Elvael's invited, so lavish is Robert;
      Of his store he gives freely to me; nor afraid
   As a justice is he to deliver just sentence
      When sitting in judgment on some Master Cade.

   There breathes not the man who shall prove in Him treason
      While there lives boat or ship with an anchor at sea;
   Permit it he will not--he 'll never give reason--
      While the moon night illumines, or blue the sky be.

   As all the world knows, in my Lord's lordly mansion
      Are huntsmen and yeomen, that none will deny;
   In its stalls stand the coursers all gilded and neighing,
      Bows for battle, and horns, and the stag's bleating cry.

   In Whitney are greyhounds, of hounds, too, a hundred;
      There huntsmen in plenty all ready to start:
   With kitchens for Christmas, and buttery, and cellars;
      While men prattle at work, many cooks ply their art.

   1 The salmon, with which the Wye still abounds, is often referred to
by the Welsh bards as possessing exceptionally long life. "Nine lives"
is also a common expression with them.


110         The Ancestry of John Whitney

   From the mansion is carried loud laughter of peasants,
      From the tow'r that of many an unbidden guest:
   From the bridegroom bring progeny, offspring, descendants;
      From the bride bring a blossom,--a line to be blest.

   Amen! I say, too, may her children content her,
      And gladden the bosom of Whitney's brave lord:
   May they grow in their mansion in lieu of good liquor,
      And in their White Tower where riches are stored.

   My lady's free mansion, my lord's goodly mansion,
      Is the wretches' asylum, so holy is she:
   Tower fairer to us than the White Tower of London
      Is Whitney's, so bounteous and gentle is he.

   What mansion save that on the headland of Alice,
      Like Sandwich, is fashioned like five on the dice?
   More lofty than Joseph's or Sisera's palace,
      The fortress on Wye will grow ever in size.

   Not dearer to me are the Houses for Charity
      By Lazarus built, nor Nudd's own on the strand,
   Than Whitney's, as peerless for wine and hilarity
      As flowers from the South are to ev'ry far land.

   From the one to the other more lavish the gifts are
      Than the flow of the stream to the guileless and meek:
   So the Wise Men gave Mary the gold from their coffers
      From far when they travell'd their Saviour to seek.

   Of their gold-ore and mead, goods of both and of either,
      I shall ne'er be denied by this well wedded pair:
   Their land, too, will revenue bring me and raiment;
      Divers herbs, and of feasts, too, ne'er fail me a share.

        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          111

   Divers dainties shall reach us from plain and from mountain,
      Divers birds, too, and fishes fresh out of the sea:
   He is Arthur himself, so he will not o'erlook me;
      His Queen, too, Gwenhwyvar; like-minded is she.

   Woe, woe to the Saxon who loves not their castle!
      Of the Welshman who scorns them be told a sad tale:
   Nor Daniel, Non, Denis, Cedwyn, them to cherish,
      David, Dwynwen, Elias, nor Hilary fail!

   May they live the long life both of Noë and Moses!
      Of two trees, the oak female and male, be their age!
   Late let them be parted when Death their course closes!
      Mary, speed well its outset, make happy its stage!

   Yes, late be their parting! The length of their lifetime
      From Whitney to Monmouth the oldest defy:
   To bestow, with their links of pure gold, many collars,
      And with wine crown the bowl on the banks of the Wye.

                                                  H. W. L.

   Despite the evident fulsome flattery, these verses
give us some idea of the life at Whitney, a generation
before the discovery of America, and have, moreover,
a decided historical value.  They at least suggest
that the castle was restored after the Welsh had
burned it in 1403, and again became the abode of the
family.
   In the first stanza the expression "cross figured
mansion" may refer to the Whitney arms carved in
stone above the entrance, or to its shape, having four
wings, and in consequence resembling "the five on
the dice," thus:

                           O
                           |
                           |
                      O----O----O
                           |
                           |
                           O

112         The Ancestry of John Whitney

   In the third and fourth stanzas, "the strong tow'rs,"
the "watch and ward," the "men in plate-armour,"
and the "steeds and the spearmen" ready for battle,
indicate the constant watchfulness that the unquiet
condition of the kingdom necessitated. Robert being
so prominent a leader of the York faction, it is
not improbable that he commanded a considerable
force of men-at-arms, who were regularly garrisoned
on his estate.
   In the eleventh,

   From the mansion is carried loud laughter of peasants,
      From the tow'r that of many an unbidden guest,

indicates that, as almost invariably happened through-
out England, the original castle, doubtless a most un-
comfortable place in which to live, had received the
modern addition of a manor house.  At Hay this
occurred, and both structures can be seen to-day.
As the necessity for a place of defense passed away,
the ivy-grown towers were neglected and allowed to
crumble in decay.
   Despite the happy auspices of her marriage, "Mis-
tress Alice" lived but a short time, and Robert mar-
ried, as her successor, Constance, the daughter of
James Touchett, Baron Audley, and grand-daughter
of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, by Constance,
daughter of Prince Edmund, fifth son of Edward III.
Among the many authorities for this statement
may be cited Collins's "Peerage," vol. VI, page 551;
"Genealogies of Morgan and Glamorgan," page 237,
and the "Visitations of Herefordshire," among the
Harleian Manuscripts in the British Museum, printed
in full in the Appendix. She was, therefore, lineally

Melville p112a.jpg

                            HAY CASTLE, 1895.

The ruins of the old tower and walls are at the right, so covered by ivy as to be almost completely obscured.


        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          113

descended from William the Conqueror, through the
following line, viz.:
   WILLIAM I., Duke of Normandy, and afterwards
King of England, commonly called William the Con-
queror, b. 1027, d. 1087; married Matilda, daughter
of Baldwin, Earl of Flanders, and grand-daughter of
Robert, King of France, and had
   HENRY I., b. 1068, d. 1135. King of England 1100-
1135; married Matilda, daughter of Malcolm III.,
King of Scotland, by Margaret, grand-daughter of
Edmund Ironside, the last of the West Saxon Kings,
and had
   MATILDA, who married Geoffrey Plantagenet, Earl
of Anjou, and had
   HENRY II., b. 1133, d. 1189. King of England 1154-
1189; married Eleanor, daughter and heir of William,
Duke of Aquitaine, and divorced wife of Louis VII.
of France, and had
   JOHN, b. 1167, d. 1216. King of England 1199-
1216; married Isabella, daughter of Aymer, Count of
Angoulême, and had
   HENRY III., b. 1207, d. 1272. King of England
1216-72; married Eleanor, daughter of the Count
Provence, and had
   EDWARD I., b. 1239, d. 1307. King of England 1272-
1307; married second wife Margaret, sister of Philip
IV. of France, and had
   EDMUND OF WOODSTOCK, Earl of Kent. Espoused
the cause of his half-brother, the deposed Edward II.,
and in consequence was beheaded at Winchester in
the early part of the reign of Edward III. He mar-
ried Margaret, daughter of John, Lord Baron Wake,
and had
   JOAN, "the Fair Maide of Kent," Lady of Wake,

114         The Ancestry of John Whitney

etc., who married, first, William de Montacute, Earl
of Salisbury, and, on that marriage being set aside,
Thomas Holland, Knight of the Garter, Captain Gen-
eral of Brittany, France, and Normandy, commander
of van of Prince Edward's army at battle of Crécy,
etc. d. 1360. They had
   THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of Kent; Baron Holland,
Woodstock, and Wake; Earl Marshal, etc. d. 1397.
He married Alice Fitz Allen, daughter of Richard,
Earl of Arundel, and had
   THOMAS HOLLAND, Earl of Kent; Duke of Surrey;
Baron Holland, Woodstock, and Wake; Earl Mar-
shal; Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Together with Earl
of Salisbury taken prisoner and beheaded at battle
of Cirencester in 1400, on account of loyalty to his
cousin, the deposed King Richard II. At the time of
his death he was betrothed to Constance, daughter of
Prince Edmund de Langley, son of Edward III.,
Duke of York, etc. (who afterwards married Thomas
Despenser, Earl of Gloucester), by whom he had
posthumously
   ELEANOR, who married James Touchett, Baron
Audley, who was killed while leading the forces of
Henry VI. (Lancastrian) at the battle of Blore Heath,
1459.1 They had

   1 He was a brave and active soldier all his life; In the wars of
France in 1420; summoned to parliament as Lord Audley, and at-
tended Henry V. on expedition to France, where he took part in the
siege of Molyn on the Seine in 1421; at the siege of Meaux, and later
one of the lords that brought back the body of the dead king for inter-
ment in Westminster in 1422; chief in command of forces in war with
France in 1430. "He was sent, in 37 Henry VI. (1459), to encounter
Richard Nevil, Earl of Salisbury, who had assembled forces on behalf
of the Duke of York, of whose proceedings Hall and Hollinshed, in
their Chronicle, give this account: 'The Lord Audley, according to
his commission, having raised about 10,000 men, approached near to


        Whitneys of the Fifteenth Century          115

   CONSTANCE, who married Robert Whitney of Whit-
ney, as above stated.
   One of the Harleian Manuscripts, No. 1545, gives
Robert issue by Alice, but the others, viz., Nos. 1159
and 1442, give it by Constance. That the latter are
correct seems certain from the fact that his eldest
son and heir was James, a name that had never be-
fore appeared in the Whitney family, and appar-
ently not in that of Vaughan, but which was borne by
the father of Constance, James Touchett, a famous
man, whose memory would naturally be perpetuated.
   The manuscripts just quoted mention but one
other child, a daughter Joan, who married Sir Roger
Vaughan.1

the Earl in a plain called Blore Heath, within a mile of Drayton, in
Shropshire, in order to prevent his march to London. Whereupon the
Earl, finding it impossible to avoid an engagement, encouraged his
men and encamped on the side of a deep brook the night before the
day of St. Thecle.. When the battle was fought, the Lord Audley, with
the van-guard of his army, passed the water, but the Earl and his men
being desperate, behaved with such valor, that, after a sharp en-
counter, the Lord Audley, with most of his men, were slain, before the
rest of his forces could come to his assistance.'"
   By his wife Eleanor, he had Sir Humphrey, slain at Tewkesbury;
Edmund, Bishop of Rochester, Hereford, and Salisbury; Margaret, wife
of Henry Gray, Lord Powis, son of Henry, Earl of Tankerville; Eliza-
beth, wife of Edward Brooke, Lord Cobham, and Constance, wife of
"Sir Robert Whitney, Knight." Collins's "Peerage," vol. vi, p. 550.
   1 "Sir Roger Vaughan of Porthaml in Talgarth, member of Parliament
for Brecknockshire, 1547, 1552, 1553, 1554, 1558, Kt. 1530; married, first,
Eleanor, eldest daughter of Henry Somerset, Earl of Worcester; and
second, Joan, daughter of Robert Whitney, by Constance Touchett,
his second wife, with whom Sir Roger had lands in Talgarth." "Gene-
alogies of Morgan and Glamorgan," p. 241.


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