Family:Whitney, Eli (1765-1825)
He married firstly, Jan 1817, Henrietta Frances Edwards, daughter of Pierpont and Frances (Ogden) Edwards. She was born Jun 1786, and died 16 Apr 1870, New Haven, CT, aged 83 years. She was daughter of Hon. Pierpont Edwards, who graduated at Princeton College in 1768; was a lawyer in New Haven, CT, soldier in the Revolution, member of the Continental Congress, and judge of the U. S. court for Connecticut at the time of his death. He was a frequent member of the Connecticut Legislature, was the first grand master of the Masonic fraternity in Connecticut. She was a granddaughter of Rev. Jonathan Edwards, president of New Jersey college.
Eli Whitney, inventor, born in Westborough, MA, 8 Dec 1765; died in New Haven, CT, 8 Jan 1825. During the Revolutionary war he was engaged in making nails by hand. Subsequently, by his industry as an artisan and by teaching, he was able to defray his expenses at Yale, where he was graduated in 1792. In the same year he went to Georgia under an engagement as a private tutor, but on arriving there found that the place had been filled. He then accepted the invitation of the widow of General Nathanael Greene to make her place at Mulberry Grove, on Savannah river, his home while he studied law. Several articles that he had devised for Mrs. Greene's convenience gave her great faith in his inventive powers, and when some of her visitors regretted that there could be no profit in the cultivation of the green seed-cotton, which was considered the best variety, owing to the great difficulty of separating it from the seed, she advised them to apply to Whitney, "who," she said, "could make anything." A pound of preen-seed cotton was all that a negro woman could, at that period, clean in a day. Mr. Whitney up to that time had seen neither the raw cotton nor the cotton seed, but he at once procured some cotton, from which the seeds had been removed, although with trouble, as it was not the season of the year for the cultivation of the plant, and began to work out his idea of the cotton-gin. He was occupied for some months in constructing his machine, during which he met with great difficulty, being compelled to draw the necessary iron wire himself, as he could obtain none in Savannah, and to manufacture his own iron tools. Near the end of 1792 he succeeded in making a gin, of which the principle and mechanism are exceedingly simple. Its main features are a cylinder four feet long, and five inches in diameter, upon which is set a series of circular saws half an inch apart and projecting two inches above the surface of the revolving cylinder. A mass of cotton in the seed, separated from the cylinder by a steel grating, is brought in contact with the numerous teeth in the cylinder. These teeth catch the cotton while playing between the bars, which allow the lint, but not the seed, to pass. Beneath the saws is a set of stiff brushes on another cylinder, revolving in a opposite direction, which brush off from the saw teeth the lint that these have just pulled from the seed. There is also a revolving fan for producing a current of air to throw the light and downy lint that is thus liberated to a convenient distance from the revolving saws and brushes. Such are the essential principles of the cotton gin as invented by Whitney, and as it is still used, but in various details and workmanship it has been the subject of many improvements, the object of which has been to pick the cotton more perfectly from the seed, to prevent the teeth from cutting the staple, and to give greater regularity to the operation of the machine. By its use the planter was able to clean for market, by the labor of one man, one thousand pounds of cotton in place of five or six by hand. Mrs. Greene and Phinehas Miller were the only ones permitted to see the machine, but rumors of it had gone through the state, and before it was quite finished the building in which it was placed was broken into at night and the machine was carried off. Before he could complete his model and obtain a patent, a number of machines, based on his invention, had been made surreptitiously, and were in operation. In May, 1793, he formed a partnership with Mr. Miller, who had some property, and went to Connecticut to manufacture the machines, but he became involved in continual trouble by the infringement of his patent. In Georgia it was boldly asserted that he was not the inventor, but that something like it had been produced in Switzerland, and it was claimed that the substitution of teeth cut in an iron plate for wire prevented an infringement on his invention. He had sixty lawsuits pending before he secured a verdict in his favor. In South Carolina the legislature granted him $50,000, which was finally paid after vexatious delays and lawsuits. North Carolina allowed him a percentage for the use of each saw for five years, and collected and paid it over to the patentees in good faith, and Tennessee promised to do the same thing, but afterwards rescinded her contract. For years, amid accumulated misfortunes, lawsuits wrongfully decided against him, the destruction of his manufactory by fire, the industrious circulation of the report that his machine injured the fiber of the cotton, the refusal of congress, on account of the southern opposition, to allow the patent to be renewed, and the death of his partner, Mr. Whitney struggled on until he was convinced that he should never receive a just compensation for his invention. In 1791 the amount of cotton that was exported amounted to only 189,500 pounds, while in 1803, owing to the use of his gin, it had risen to more than 41,000,000 pounds. Despairing of ever gaining a competence, he turned his attention in 1798 to the manufacture of fire-arms near New Haven, from which he eventually gained a fortune. He was the first manufacturer of fire-arms to effect the division of labor to the extent of making it the duty of each workman to perform by machinery but one or two operations on a single part of the gun, and thus made interchangeable the parts of the thousands of arms in process of manufacture at the same time. His first contract was with the U. S. government for 10,000 stand of muskets, to be finished in about two years. For the execution of this order he took two years for preparation and eight more for completion. He gave bonds for $30,000, and was to receive $13.40 for each musket, or $134,000 in all. Immediately he began to build an armory at the foot of East Rock, ten miles from New Haven, in the village of Whitneyville, where, through the successive administrations, from that of John Adams, repeated contracts for the supply of arms were made and fulfilled to the entire approbation of the government. The construction of his armory, and even of the commonest tools which were devised by him for the prosecution of the business in a manner peculiar to himself, evinced the fertility of his genius and the precision of his mind. The buildings became the model by which the national armories were afterwards arranged, and many of his improvements were taken to other establishments and have become common property. His advance in the manufacture of arms laid this country under permanent obligations by augmenting the means of national defense. Several of his inventions have been applied to other manufactures of iron and steel and added to his reputation. He established a fund of $500 at Yale, the interest of which is expended in the purchase of books on mechanical and physical science. In 1817 he married a daughter of Judge Pierpont Edwards. Robert Fulton said that "Arkwright, Watt, and Whitney were the three men that did the most for mankind and any of their contemporaries," and Macaulay said: "What Peter the Great did to make Russia dominant, Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin has more than equaled in its relation to the power and progress of the U. S." See "Memoir of Eli Whitney," by Denison Olmsted (New Haven, 1846). He died 8 Jan 1825; resided New Haven, CT.
His wife Henrietta was admitted to the church 26 Apr 1818, New Haven, CT.
For more information see Archives - Biographies.
Children of Eli7 and Henrietta Frances (Edwards) Whitney, all born New Haven, CT:
i. Frances Edwards8 Whitney, b. 23 Nov 1817; bapt. 1818, New Haven, CT; d. 5 May 1859; "of New Haven" m. 1 Dec 1842, New Haven, CT, Charles L. Chaplain "of Baltimore". He was b. 17 Oct 1816; d. 7 Mar 1892. Children: a. Henrietta E. Chaplain, b. 10 Feb 1843; resided 259 Church St., cor. Grove, New Haven, CT. b. William R. J. Chaplain, b. 7 Feb 1844. c. Francis Edwards Chaplain, b. 28 May 1847; resided with Henrietta. d. Elizabeth S. Chaplain, b. 19 Dec 1848; resided with Henrietta. e. Charles F. Chaplain, b. 4 May 1859. ii. Elizabeth Fay Whitney, b. Mar 1819; d. said 7 Feb 1852, but on 31 Jul 1853, was admitted to the church on profession, in her sick room. iii. Eli Whitney, b. 24 Nov 1820, d. 17 Aug 1895; m. Sarah Perkins Dalliba, b. 25 Mar 1824, d. 12 Jan 1909. iv. Susan Edwards Whitney, b. Dec 1821; d. 8 Sep 1823, aged 2 years.
- 1790: not found.
- 1800, Hamden, New Haven Co., CT: Eli Whitney, 2 males 26-44, 20 males 16-25, 2 males 0-9, 2 and females 16-25.
- 1810, Hamden, New Haven Co., CT: Eli Whitney, 1 male over 45, 8 males 26-44, 8 males 16-25, 6 males 10-15, 1 female 26-44, 1 female 16-25, and 1 female 10-15.
- 1820, New Haven, New Haven Co., CT: Eli Whitney, 1 male over 45, 2 males 18-25, 2 females 26-44, 1 female 10-15, and 2 females 0-9; 2 engaged in manufacture or trades.
- 1830, New Haven, New Haven Co., CT: Henrietta Whitney, 1 male 20-29, 1 male 5-9, 1 female 50-59, 1 female 40-49, 1 female 20-29, 2 females 15-19, and 3 females 10-14.
- 1840, New Haven, New Haven Co., CT: Mrs. Eli F. Whitney, 1 male 15-19, 1 female 50-59, 2 females 20-29, 1 female 15-19, 1 female 5-9, 1 free colored male 24-35, and 1 free colored female 24-35.
- 1850, New Haven, New Haven Co., MA:
1838 2723 A. D. Edwards 66 M - None Conn. A. G. " 18 F - " H. F. Whitney 64 F - $25000 " E. F. " 30 F - $25000 N.Y. E. Woodlock 22 F - Ireland J. Squire 15 F - Conn. M. Fayer 21 F - Eng. M. Woodlock 20 M - Gardner Ireland J. McLeod 25 M - Waiter "
- All data imported from Frederick Clifton Pierce, The Descendants of John Whitney, Who Came from London, England, to Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1635, (Chicago: 1895), pp. 254-256.
1.^ "Eli [Whitney], s. Eli and Elizabeth, [born] Dec. 8, 1765. [Inventor of Cotton Gin.]," according to Franklin P. Rice, ed., Vital Records of Westborough, Massachusetts, to the End of the Year 1849 (1903). Also, "Eli [Whitney], inventor of the cotton gin and improvements in fire-arms, at New Haven. Journal of Jan. 17, 1825," according to Rhode Island, Vital Records.
6.^ "Frances E. [Whitney], of New Haven, m. Charles L. CHAPLAIN, of Baltimore, 1 Dec 1842, by Rev. Leonard BACON, New Haven 6:41," according to the Barbour Collection of Connecticut Vital Records, New Haven 6:41.