Archive:Hundred of Huntington

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Morgan George Watkins, Collections towards the history and antiquities of the county of Hereford. In continuation of Duncumb’s history. Hundred of Huntington ... (Hereford: 1898).


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10                   COUNTY OF HEREFORD

                     PARISH OF CLIFFORD.

     CLIFFORD is bounded on the North by Whitney and
Winforton, South by Cusop, East by Dorstone and Bredwardine,
and on the West by Clyro and Hay. It is separated from
Radnorshire by the Wye.
     The name of the parish is evidently derived from its situation,
its Castle standing on an eminence overlooking a shallow in the
river below. In the reign of Edward the Confessor, Cliford, (as
Domesday calls it,)* was unenclosed and uncultivated. Its
possessor at that time was Bruning, who was displaced at the
Conquest and Clifford was given by the King to William Fitzosborn
of Crepon, a relative and one of the Conqueror's companions in the
expedition to this country. This William was the first Norman
Earl of Hereford. He erected a strong Castle here on the right
bank of the river, founding it on a rock rising almost perpendicularly
from the water to a considerable height.† Some authorities think
that he only repaired Clifford Castle, but the account in Domesday
Book appears decisive on the subject. He married Adeline, or,
(according to other records), Maud, daughter of Roger de Todeni,
sometimes called de Tony, who was of a noble family in Normandy.
By her he had issue three sons and three daughters. He was slain
in the contest for the Earldom of Flanders, 1070. His eldest son,
William, being provided for in Normandy, Ralph de Todeni, the
second son, held Clifford when Domesday Book was compiled, but it
seems probable that Roger, the third son, afterwards acquired it on
his brother becoming a monk in the Abbey of Cormeilles which their
father had founded. It is thus surveyed in Domesday.

                     TERRA RADULPHI DE TODENI.

     "Item tenet Castellum de Cliford. Wills comes fecit illud in
wasta terra quam tenebat Bruning tempore Regis Edwardi. Ibi
habit Radulphus terram ad 3 car; sed non est nisi 1 car. Illud
Castellum est de regno Anglie; non subjacet alicui hundr., neque
in consuetudine. Gislebertus vice-comes tenet illud ad firmam et
burgum et car. De toto reddit 60 solidos.
_________________________________________________________________
       * A modernised form of its Roman name "clivus fortis."
       † He also built castles at Wigmore and Ewias Harold.

                       PARISH OF CLIFFORD                       11

     In hac castellaria tenet Rogerus terram ad 4 car; et Drogo ad
5 car; et Osbertus ad 2 car. Hi habent in dominio 9 car; et 16
burgenses et 13 boradios et 5 Walenses et 6 servos et 4 ancillas et
molendin reddentem 3 modios annonae, et 4 bovarii ibi sunt. Inter
tot: quod habent val: 8 libras et 5 solidos; et isti et quicunque
alii habent aliquid ibi de Radulfo tenent. + + + ln eadem
castellaria tenet Rogerus de Laci 4 car: terre. Pater ejus tenuit.
Wastae fuerunt et sunt."
     From this account it appears that the Castle and lands were not
attached to any Hundred, nor subject to usual customs, but that
they were held immediately under the crown of England, that the
land held by Ralph had formerly consisted of three carucates,
(generally understood to contain a hundred acres each), but now was
only one carucate, that Gislebertus held it to farm together with the
town, (burgum), or village, and that its value was sixty shillings, that
Roger had four, Drogo five, and Osbert two carucates of the lands
attached to the Castle, and that they also had in demesne, nine other
carucates, with sixteens burgesses (or inhabitants) under them, 13
borderers who resided on the extreme parts of the territory. They
had also under them five Welch men, six man-servants, four maids,
four cattle keepers, and a mill yielding three gallons of flour. These
men occup8ied three carucates. The value of the whole was eight
pounds and five shillings. They held also with other tenants another
portion of land belonging to the lord, and Roger de Laci had four
carucates which has father held before him. These four carucates
were waste land and so remained when Domesday survey was
compiled.
     It has already been noticed that Rogcr the younger brother of
Ralph de Todeni seems to have succeeded to the property and
Castle here when Ralph became a monk at Cormeilles. This Roger
succeeded his father in the Earldom of Hereford as well as in the
paternal estates; but, joining with the Earl of Norfolk in a conspiracy
against William Rufus, their enterprise was defeated and
their possessions confiscated.
     Clifford was then granted by the Crown to Walter,* son of
Richard Fitz Pontz, who was lineally descended from Richard, Duke
of Normandy. Dugdale states that this Walter married Margaret,
______________________________________________________________________
                         * Collins, Peerage.

12                       COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

daughter of Ralph de Todeni and obtained the manor by this
alliance. Walter made Clifford Castle his residence and was the
first to be created Baron Clifford with the inherited Baronies of
De Vipont, Westmorland and De Vesci. From him the Earls
of Cumberland of that name, who flourished from the reign of
Henry VIII to that of Charles I derive their origin; as also the
noble family of Clifford, which is a collateral branch of the above
and was created 1672 A.D. He was Custos of the royal Castles in
this County and was on three occasions Sheriff of Herefordshire.
     By his wife, Margaret, Walter had issue two sons and two
daughters; (1), Walter his heir; (2), Richard de Clifford, Lord of
Frampton in Gloucestershire. His daughters were Rosamond, the
celebrated mistress of Henry II.; and Lucia, who married Hugh,
Lord Say, a powerful Baron who possessed and resided at Richard's
Castle in this County. She married secondly Bartholomew one of
the Mortimer's of Wigmore.
     Walter the second, the eldest son, succeeded his father in 1221
and was one of the powerful Barons in the Marches. He married
Agnes, daughter and heiress of Roger de Conde', Lord of Covenby
and Glentham in Lincolnshire, and had issue five sons, viz., Walter,
Roger, Richard, Simon, and Giles.
     Walter and Agnes granted nine acres in their Manor of
Middlewood and also common of pasture in Middlewood and lands
in Winforton to Friar Stephen of the Hermitage in the island
of Winforton. This Walter de Clifford was Sheriff of Herefordshire
four times and, dying in 7th Henry III, was succeeded by his eldest
son.
     Walter de Clifford third, on his father's death because possessed
of his lands and honours. He married as his second wife, Margaret,
daughter of Llewellyn Prince of Wales, and widow of John de
Braose. She died 1265 A.D., and was interred in the Priory Church
of Aconbury in this County. By her he had issue a daughter,
Idonea, who married William de Longspee, third Earl of Salisbury,
descended from Henry II. by Rosamond Clifford, and her greatgrandson,
and Maud, who married John Giffard and brought the
Castle and property into his possessions. Walter, as an influential
Lord Marcher, was frequently employed in resisting the predatory
invasions of the Welsh. At the coronation of Queen Eleanor he
with other Baron Marchers claimed the right of carrying the canopy

                       PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                       13

which belonged to the Barons of tile Cinque Ports. Taking part
in the rebellion of Marshall, Earl of Pembroke, his lands were
confiscated and himself outlawed, but he regained the King's favour,
Clifford Castle with his other lands were restored and for many
years he enjoyed the confidence of the King.
     In 1271 the King being informed by letter from Matilda de
Longspee that John Giffard of Brymsfield had taken her by force from
her Manor-house * and since kept her under restraint at his Castle
of Brymsfield, ordered his immediate attendance at Court to give an
explanation of his conduct. As he denied that he had taken the
lady by force and was detaining her contrary to her wishes certain
trustworthy members of the household were instructed to have an
interview with Matilda and obtain her account of the circumstances.
At this time Giffard suggested a friendly arrangement and paid 300
marks as a fine for contracting marriage without license, an amount
deemed sufficient should Matilda neither deny nor repudiate an
engagement. After a month's delay, the King was informed that
Matilda was enfeebled by illness, and that she was unable to appear
before him, and therefore deputed "our beloved and faithful Nicholas
de Yattenden and Peter de Chaumprient to ascertain diligently at a
personal interview the truth of the matter as regards the wishes of
Matilda so as to render a satisfactory account, and at a future day
when Matilda is able to travel to Court, she shall certify the actual
circumstances of her complaint."†
     Whether this contemplated interview took place may be doubted,
as the aged monarch died the following year, but that the Lady
accepted the Lord of Brymsfield as her second husbands is established
by the fact that, when in the next reign, Giffard was required by
writ of Quo Warranto to prove his right to hold pleas of the Crown
and exact free pledge in his Manor of Clifford, and to inclose fines
for breaches of the assize of bread and ale, and the exercise of free
warren in his Manor of Merebach, he pleaded that Merebach was
appurtenant to the Manor of Clifford, which, with its appurtenances
belonged to Matilda, his late wife, by whom he had issue, by virtue
whereof he held the Manor during life by the courtesy of England,
and that, as all the alleged privileges were appurtenant to the Manor,
______________________________________________________________________
             * "Was ever woman in this humour wooed?
                Was ever woman in this humour won? "--(Rich. III., i. 2).
                               † Rymer.

14                       COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

he was unable to prove title unless Margaret, wife of Henry de Lacy,
Catherine, wife of Nicholas d'Audley, Alianor and Matilda, sisters of
Catherine to whom the Manor belonged were summoned as codefendants,
and that Alianor and Catherine were not of full age.
The Attorney General contended that such provisions were so
annexed to the Crown that they could not be exercised by a subject,
except by special grant, which the defendant did not aver, and he
claimed the verdict for the King. He further insisted that John
Giffard had imposed fines for such breaches of tile law, and appropriated
the monies to his own use, an accusation denied by the
defendants, and on the question being submitted to a Jury, their
verdict was given to Giffard. The substantial point in dispute was
adjourned to the Assizes at Shrewsbury, in the same year, where
Matilda appeared and satisfied the Judges Itinerant as to her minority,
whereupon the litigation was postponed until she had attained her
full age. Additional particulars are not on record. In A.D. 1297,
John Giffard, being summoned with others holding lands in
Herefordshire and Salop, of £20 annual value and upwards,
admitted his liability to render military service for one Knight's
Fee due from his own freeholds, and for two due from the estate of
his late wife.
     On the decease of John Giffard in 1299, after founding
Gloucester Hall, Oxford, in 1283, there was a Chancery decree
by consent of his heirs for the partition of tile estates of Matilda
Longspee among her co-heiresses. The Castle, Manor, and Honour
of Clifford, with the hamlets of Middlewood and Brodemere and their
appurtenances, a ferry over the Wye, and tile Manor of Glasbury,
were allotted to Margaret, the eldest daughter, and her husband,
Henry Lacy, Earl of Lincoln. These were charged with the annuity
Of £27 16s. 2d., and the Manor of Glasbury, with its appurtenances
in the same County, with a charge thereon of £10 9s. of annual rent,
with all military rights advowsons of Churches and all lands held by
her late mother, Matilda, in dowry. The children of her second
marriage, Katherine wife of Nicholas de Audley, Eleanor wife of
Fulke Strange and Matilda Giffard had their respective portions
from lands in Salop and Wales. (Inq. p. m. 27 Ed. I, No. 55).
     On the decease of Margaret her portion was held by the Earl of
Salisbury until his decease in 1311, as parcel of the Earldom. (Inq.
p. m. 4 Edw. 2, No. 51). This Earl, one of the most eminent

                      PARISH OF CLIFFORD                     15

persons of his age left an only daughter and heiress, Alice de Lacy,
who married, first, Thomas Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster. He
died in 1321. Next she married Eubold le Strange (Inq. p. m.
9 Edw. 3, No. 42), and thirdly Hugh de Frecnes. She assumed
the titles of Countess of Lincoln and Salisbury, but died without
issue in 1348. It is asserted by some writers that her two last
husbands jure uxoris were known as Earls of Lincoln.
     The following notices carry on the history of the manor:-
     Walter de Clifford, Junior, was Custos of Royal Castles in the
County of Hereford and on the Welsh border and held the shrievalty
of the County of Hereford in 1199. He wrote to King John
enumerating those who remained opposed to the royal power in the
County of Hereford, and requesting his aid against the Welsh who
meditated another attack on the termination of the truce.*
     At the decease of the Countess of Lincoln without any known
relatives, Clifford manor with Glasbury passed to the Crown, and are
among the manors enumerated in an Escheator's enquiry in 1329.
In 1331 Nicholas de Cantilupe brought an action against Nicholas
L'Estrange with regard to the Castle and Manor of Clifford, its
advowson and that of Glasbury which Alice L'Estrange held for
her life. It was agreed that Plaintiff should hold for his life with
remainder to Defendant and his heirs. (Fines, Co. Hereford, No. 223).
     Ralph Spigurnel held when he died in 1373 these manors.
(Inq. p. m. 46 Edw. III, Nos. 51 and 68.)
     In 1382 the Castle and Manor of Clifford are included among
the estates of Edmund, Earl of March and Philippa his Countess.
Later in the reign of Richard II he also held Bredwartdyn, Brodemedow
rents, Middlewood, Castleton estate, Bromfield, Wigmore,
Lenthall, Lenthall Starks Manor, Burrington, Pembridge Manor,
Presthend, Presteign, Malmeshull and La Noke.
     After the death of Roger Mortimer (22nd King Rich. II,) it
appeared he died seized of these lands and manors in the County;
the Castle and dominions of Wigmore and Clifford, the Manors of
Earlestone, Orleton, Northwood, Wolfreton, Mawrdyn, Matonsheel-Lacy
and Wynfreton, two parts of the Manor of Much Marcle and of
lands in Moke Colinton, Bredwardyn and Little Cowarne.
     Henry IV in 1404 granted to Robert Whiteney, in consequence
of his father and many of his relatives having been killed in the
__________________________________________________________________
* Calendar of Royal Letters, No. 381, App. ii. to 5th Report of Public Records.

16                    COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

royal service and his property burnt by the Welsh rebels, the Castle
of Clifford and the lordships of Clifford and Glasbury. "So always
that the said Robert has repaired the aforesaid Castle and tarries in
the same in the defence and keeping safe of the Castle and lordships
aforesaid." (See Transactions of Woolhope Club, 1889, p. 369).
     1437. Alicia quae fuit uxor Thomae Barre, Militis, ten. die quo
obiit Clifford cas. et maner; Dorstone cast. et maner; Tyberton
maner. She married secondly Richard de la Bere who held by the
courtesy of England.
     1513. Richard Cornewall, Esquire of the Body, was appointed
Steward of the lordship of Clifford, Glasbury and Winforton in the
Marches of Wales and Constable of the Castle of Clifford. Ralph
Hakluyt held the same with him on a salary of £4 11s. In 1590
the name of Ralph Hakluyt was ordered to be included in the
general pardon from which he had been excepted. In 1547 the
Manor of Clifford was granted to Lord Clinton.
      Anthony Bourchier, Esq., did homage for the Manor of Clifford
in 1547. It was demised in 1568 by Bourchier to Richard Trotman;
and in 1592 was alienated by John Fortescue to Eustace Whitney.
In 1609 Eustace Whitney alienated it to Sir Roger Bodenham and
others in trust, while in 1623 it was again aliened by Sir Robert
Whitney to Constance Lucy and Richard Lucy, Esq., as a deed for
their marriage settlement.
     Clifford Park belonged to Whitney. In 1686 John D. Colt and
Mary his wife and Anne Smallman, spinster, sold to Robt. Price,
Esquire, of Lincoln's Inn, trees in Clifford Park for £120.
     The Honour of Clifford contained the Manors of Kilkington,
Rochford, Dyndor, Bradford in Leominster, Ford, Hampton,
Hamnish, Home, Brimfield, Dewsall. Simon Hyett held lands in
Kilpeck and Holme Lacy which he demised to John Scudamore, also
a manor called Whitney in tile Honour of Clifford and six messuages,
seven hundred acres of land, forty-three of meadow and eighty of
pasture, forty of wood and forty shillings of rent and four messuages
and lands in Frogashe.
     Clifford Castle stands on a picturesque eminence deposited by
the Wye which ages before the Plantagenets swept over the site
where the ruins are now crumbling to decay. During the excavations
made for the railway along the base of this hill a "kitchen midden"
was disclosed containing many bones all of existing animals. The

                       PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                     17

The Castle grounds are now included in two acres of an irregular
form. The site of the Castle consists of inner and outer wards and
their earthworks. A tower and the ruins of walls some six feet
thick, with a string course in excellent preservation and two garde
robes, from what remains of the inner ward, which is about a
hundred feet square. To the north of this lies the outer court,
defended on the west by the river bank and on the other sides by
ditches, scarps and curtains. In the centre of allis outer ward a,
mound of earth full of stones probably points to tile site of a tower
or enclosure. South of the inner ward are earthworks of a triangular
form, some thirty yards along each side. In all probability these
earthworks were strongly defended by wooden palisades after the
fashion of a New Zealand "pah," and may have been used ages
before the Castle was built beside them. The Chancel of the Castle
Chapel was standing in 1657, and was situated on the east side of
the outer ward. The Castle itself was only tenanted occasionally in
the 15th century.
     It would be impossible in connection with Clifford to forget Fair
Rosamond ("spectatissima"), daughter of Walter de Clifford, and
Margaret, daughter of Ralph de Toni, and grand-daughter of
Richard Fitz Pons, ancestor of the Clifford family. Numerous
myths have been told of her by writers who lived after her time, such
as the Maze om which King Henry II kept her at Woodstock, and
the manner in which she died at the hands of the Queen, who found
her way in by means of a silken clue. These stories will be briefly
alluded to and then left to poets and romances. In spite of her high
lineage, Rosamond must often have wished
          "Would I had been some maiden coarse and poor,
             O me, that I should ever see the light!
           Those dragon eyes of angered Eleanor
             Do hunt me, day and night."
     Hearne denounced this story of the dagger and the bowl as a
fiction. Wood tells how Fair Rosamond was buried in the Church,
at Godstowe, 1177, but was afterwards by order of St. Hugh, Bishop
of Lincoln, in 1191, removed from the Chancel to the Chapter House
of the nuns. Her tomb here bore the famous inscription:--
           Hic jacet in tumulo Rosa Mundi non Rosa Munda;
             Non redolet sed olet quai redolere solet;

18                     COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

     Which Fuller translates:--
          "This tomb doth enclose the world's fair Rose so sweet and full of favour,
           And smell she doth now, but you may guess how, none of the sweetest savour."
     Originally it had been painted with figures of birds, beasts, and
fishes. Her bones are said to have been wrapped in leather and
covered with lead. Her father and mother were buried by her side,
and Walter gave many gifts to the nunnery. Among these was, for
the health of his soul and of his wife Margaret and of his daughter
Rosamond, his mill at Frampton, except his own toll, and Richard,
his son, to whom the Manor was left gave the toll due from his own
house. Fair Rosamond herself left a cope to Buildwas Abbey with
the legend round its skirt. "Rosamunda Clifford propriis manibus
me fecit."*
     As a national ballad the poetical account of Fair Rosamond falls
short of the interest of Chevy Chase, but retains the prolixity of that
well-known composition. The importance however which provincially
attaches to the memory of Fair Rosamond may excuse its insertion,
more especially as it deals with the principal events of her life. It is
printed in Dodsley's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry, from four
copies in black letter, two of which were in the Pepys Llbrary.

          When as King Henry rulde this land,
            The Second of that name,
          Besides the Queene he dearly lovde,
            A faire and comely dame.

          Most peerlesse was her beautye found,
            Her favour and her face;
          A sweeter creature in this worlde
            Could never Prince embrace.

          Her crisped lockes like threads of gold
            Appeared to each man's sight;
          Her sparkling eyes, like Orient pearles,
            Did cast a heavenlye light.

          The blood within her chrystal cheekes
            Did such a colour drive,
          As though the lillie and the rose
            For mastership did strive.
________________________________________________________________________
* See Hearne's Collections; I. p. 202 (O.H.S.), II. p. 392 seq. Wood's Life and times I.,
341, p. (O.H.S.) and "Rosamond Clifford" in Dictionary of National Biography. See for
pedigree of Clifford, Eyton Antiquities of Shropshire, 1857, Vol. V., p. 147, and for Fair
Rosamond, pp. 148, 149-152, 161, 162. She died about 1175-6, (Eyton.) For her portrait
see Robinson's Castles of Herefordshire, p. 26.

                      PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                 19

          Yea Rosamonde, fair Rosamonde,
            Her name was called so;
          To whom our Queene, dame Ellinor,
            Was known a deadlye foe.

          The King, therefore, for her defence
            Against the furious Queene,
          At Woodstocke builded such a bower,
            The like was never seene.
          Most curiously that bower was built
            Of stone and timber strong,
          An hundred and fifty doors
            Did to this bower belong.

          And they so cunningly contrived
            With turnings round about,
          That none but with a clue of thread
            Could enter in or out.

          And for his love and ladyes sake
            That was so faire and brighte,
          The keeping of this bower he gave
            Unto a valiant Knight.

          But fortune that doth after frowne
            Where she before did smile;
          The Kinges delighte and ladyes joy
            Full soon she did beguile.

          For why, the Kinge's ungracious sonne,
            Whom he did high advance,
          against his father raised warres
            the realme of France.

          But yet before our comely King,
            The English land forsooke,
          Of Rosamond, his lady faire
            His farewelle thus he tooke;

          "My Rosamond, my only Rose,
            That pleasest best my eye;
          The fairest flower in all the worlde
            To feed my fantasye;

          The flower of mine affected heart,
            Whose sweetness doth excell;
          My Royal Rose, a thousand times
            I bid thee now farewelle!

          For I must leave my fairest flower,
            My sweetest Rose, a space,
          And cross the sea to famous France
            Proud rebelles to abase.

          And yet, my Rose, be sure thou shalt
            My coming shortly see,
          And in my heart when hence I am,
            I'll bear my Rose with mee."

20                          COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

          When Rosamond, that ladye brighte,
            Did hear the King say soe,
          The sorrowe of her grieved heart
            Her outward lookes did showe.

          And from her clear and chrystal eyes
            The teares gusht out apace,
          Which like the silver-pearled dewe
            Ranne down her comely face.

          Her lippes, erst like the corall redde,
            Did wax both wan and pale;
          And for the sorrow she conceivede
            Her vital spirits faile;

          And falling down all in a swoon
            Before King Henrye's face,
          Full oft he in his princelye arms
            Her bodye did embrace.

          And twentye times, with watery eyes,
            He kist her tender cheeke,
          Untill he had revivde againe
            Her senses milde and meeke.

          "Why grieves my Rose, my sweetest Rose?"
            The King did often say;
          "Because," quothe she, "to bloodye warres
            My Lord must part awaye.

          But since your Grace on foreign coastes,
            Among your foes unkinde,
          Must goe to hazard life and limbe,
            Why should I staye behinde?

          Nay, rather let me, like a page,
            Your sworde and target beare,
          That on my breast the blowes may lighte
            Which would offend you there.

          Or lett me in your royal tent
            Prepare your bed at nighte,
          And with sweet baths refresh your Grace
            At your returne from fighte.

          So I your presence may enjoye,
            No toil I will refuse;
          But wanting you, my life is death,
            Nay, death I'd rather chuse."

          "Content yourself, my dearest love,
            Thy rest at home shall bee,
          In England's sweet and pleasant isle,
            For travell fits not thee.

          Faire ladyes brooke not bloodye warres,
            Soft peace their sex delightes,
          Not rugged campes, but courtlye bowers,
            Gay feastes, not cruel fightes.

                          PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                  21

          My Rose shall safely here abide,
            With musicke passe the daye;
          Whilst I amonge the piercing pikes
            My foes seeke far awaye.

          My Rose shall shine in pearle and golde
            Whilst I'm in armour dighte,
          Gay galliards here my love shall dance
            Whilst I my foes goe fighte.

          And you, Sir Thomas, whom I truste
            To bee my love's defence,
          Be carefull of my gallant Rose,
            When I am parted hence."

          And therewithall he fetcht a sigh
            As though his heart would breake,
          And Rosamonde for very griefe
            Not one plain word could speake.

          And at their parting well they mighte
            In heart be grieved sore;
          After that daye faire Rosamonde
            The king did see no more.

          For when his Grace had past the seas
            And into France was gone,
          With envious heart Queene Ellinor
            To Woodstocke came anone.

          And forth she calls this trustye knyhte
            In an unhappy houre;
          Who with his clue of twined thread
            Came from this famous bower.

          And when that they had wounded him,
            The queene this thread did gette,
          And went where Ladye Rosamonde
            Was like an angell sette.

          And when the Queene with stedfast eye
            Beheld her beauteous face,
          She was amazed in her minde
            At her exceeding grace.

          "Cast off from thee these robes," she said,
            "That rich and costlye bee ;
          And drink thou up this deadlye draught,
            Which I have brought to thee."

          Then ferventlye upon her knees
            Sweet Rosamonde did falle,
          And pardon of the Queene she crav'd
            For her offences all.

          "Take pitty on my youthful yeares,"
            Fair Rosamonde did crye,
          "And let me not with poison stronge
            Enforced be to dye.

22                     COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

           I will renounce my sinfull life
             And in some cloister bide,
           Or else be banisht, if you please,
             To range the world soe wide.

           And for the fault which I have done,
             Though I was forcd theretoe,
           Preserve my life and punish mee
             As you think meet to doe."

           And with these words her lillie handes
             She wrunge full often there,
           And downe along her lovelye face
             Did trickle many a teare.

           But nothing could this furious Queene
             Therewith appeased bee;
           The cup of deadly poison stronge,
             As shee knelt on her knee,

           She gave this comelye dame to drinke,
             Who tooke it in her hand,
           And from her bended knee arose
             And on her feet did stande;

           And casting up her eyes to Heaven
             She did for mercy calle.
           And drinking up the poison stronge,
             Her life she lost withalle;

           And when that Death through everye limbe
             Had showde its greatest spite,
           Her chiefest foes did plaine confesse
             She was a glorious wight.

           Her body then they did entombe
             When life was fled awaye,
           At Godstowe, near to Oxford towne,
             As may be seen this daye.

     Among the Manors of Clifford are the Moor, Newton, Middlewood,
Upper Court, Bach, Lower Court, Rackford, and Hardwick.
The Dew family are now (1895) Lords of the Manor. Tomkyns
Dew in 1835 appointed a gamekeeper as being Lord of the Manor of
Clifford. In 1895 the Whitney Court and Clifford Estate, about
2,500 acres was put up to sale but failed to find a purchaser. It was
however in October, 1897, disposed of to James Hope, Esq. Some
earthworks, probably pre-historic, on a hill in this parish are known
as Mouse Castle. A hawk-chamber existed over the porch until of
late to be seen at the Moor, and among the groves of the family of
Penoyre is still a Hawkwood and a heronry.*
____________________________________________________________________
* Webb's Abstract of Bishop de Swinfield's Roll (Camden Soc., 1855, p. 226.)

                      PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                     23

     A warrant of the High Sheriff, dated Hereford, 22nd June,
1645, requires Mr. Penoyre and John Higgins to enlist 37 able- 
bodied men within the Parish of Clifford. A long duck gun is still
preserved at The Moor, the family seat of the Penoyres, with which,
it used to be said by aged persons at the end of last century, that a
Scot was shot from the walls, as he was sitting outside or on the
trenches, combing his hair. Thomas Penoyre was grievously plun- 
dered, 8th September, 1648, by the Roundheads. (See Memorials of
the Civil War. By J. Webb, II, 374, 392, 431, 376).
     The family of Penoyre or Penoir, originally from Cornwall, were
seated at The Moor in this Parish from the reign of Charles I.
John Penoyre, aged 28, of this parish married in 1682 Mary Probert,
also of Clifford and 28 years of age. Thomas Penoyre, born 1694,
graduated at St. John's, Cambridge, A.B. 1719, was Sheriff of the
County in 1756, and died sine prole, March, 1783.* He was
succeeded in his estate by his nephew Thomas Stallard, of Leaden- 
hall Street and of Streatham, who was eldest son of ----- Stallard, of
Lower Hill, near Leominster, and Ann, sister of Mr. Penoyre.
Mr. Stallard assumed the name and arms of Penoyre, was Sheriff of
the Couuty in 1791, and died at Streatham, aged 92. His brother
Edmund succeeded but did not long enjoy the estate, dying
lst February, 1824, aet 88. He devisecl The Moor to Francis
Rigby Broadbelt, M.D., of Batheaston Villa, son and heir of
F. R. B., late of Spanish Town, Jamaica, M.D., and Anne Gardner
his wife, daughter and co-heir of Thomas Penoyre of that island,
who died a widow aet 76, at Tenby, September, 1827, on condition
that they and their issue used the names of Stallard-Penoyre after
that of Broadbelt, for which the Royal License was granted in
March, 1824.
     John Penoyre, of Clifford, aet 21, married Anne Parsons, aet 26
in 1716.
     In 1756 Penoyre Watkins, the Under Sheriff of Herefordshire
was attorney for the plaintiff in a case tried at Hereford and three
of the Jury were relatives, by which means the plaintiff obtained the
verdict. It was set aside however by the Court. (Cowper's Reports,
p. 112).
     Mrs. Stallard Penoyre's daughter married first, 23rd September,
____________________________________________________________________
* See Nicholls' Literary Anecdotes for references to Mr. T. Penoyre, "a county squire of
the eighteenth century."

24                   COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

1830, at Cheltenham, the Rev. John Leyson, Rector of Llanorgan,
co. Brecon, who by Royal License assumed the names and arms
of Stallard Penoyre, and died without issue.
     The widow married, secondly, 8th August, 1846, at Hanley
Castle, Rev. William T. Napleton, B.D., Rector of Stoke Canon,
Devon, eldest son of Rev. Timothy Napleton, sometime Vicar of
Mansel Gammage, who also assumed the name of Penoyre, and died
30th November, 1856, without issue.
     Sarah, daughter of Thomas Penoyre, Esq., died in 1777.
Dorothy Penoyre married at Clifford, Roger Prosser, of Hay.
Elizabeth Penoyre married Rees Watkins, and their son was
Penoyre Watkins, of Hay, solicitor, grandfather of Col. John Lloyd
Watkins, M.P., for Brecon and Lord Lieutenant of that County.
     John Stallard, Esq., of Hardwick, died in Hereford aet 78.
     In 1852, died at Cheltenham, Duppa Jenkins, Esq., of London,
nephew of the late Thomas Penoyre, of The Moor, and cousin of the
late Mr. Stallard-Penoyre.
     In 1866, died at Brighton, aet 63, Thomas James Stallard- 
Penoyre, of The Moor, without issue, when these estates passed
under the entail to Rev. Francis Raymond, Prebendary of Hereford,
R.D., of Stockton, for life with remainder to his daughter, wife of
Rev. Slade Baker, M.A., and their heir born in 1861. When
Mrs. Anna Maria Broadbelt Napleton Stallard-Penoyre died
1st February, 1874, she left The Moor to her cousin, Thomas
James Brown, who assumed the name of T. J. Stallard-Penoyre.
In 1893, 11th April, at Repton Church, co. Derby, Rev. Slade
Raymond Baker Stallard-Penoyre, of the Moor, married Alice,
daughter of Rev. John Auden, deceased, and has issue. (See the
Penoyre pedigree in Robinson's Mansions, &c., p. 68).
     Newton or Foxbrook, is a subordinate manor in this parish,
having Courts Leet and Courts Baron with the view of Frankpledge
annually holden. At the dissolution it belonged to the Priory.
The present Lordship of the Manor is vested in the Dew mortgagees.
The great tithes were given to the See of Hereford by Queen
Elizabeth.
     Middlewood was given, probably by a Devereux, as an endow- 
ment to a Chantry of the Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church of
Bishopstone or perhaps by one of the Burghope family. It was
also a manor subordinate to Clifford Castle, and is alluded to in

                     PARISH OF CLIFFORD.                     25

Domesday. It had a small chapel which with its endowments was
sold temp.   Edward VI. The tithes were given to the See of
Hereford, 2 Elizabeth. Silas Taylor saw its Church in 1657 and
noted " the tomb onely of a fryer cut exquisitely in wood."
(Robinson's Mansions, &c., p. 67).
      Upper Court is another inferior manor, Sir David Williams was
its Lord. It was also called Gorsington. Hardwick possesses a
church dedicated to the Holy Trinity, erected and consecrated in
1851, to which an ecclesiastical district has been assigned. The
Communion plate was given by its founder, Mrs. Penoyre, and a
flagon by Rev. John Webb. Mrs. Penoyre in 1871 also placed in
it a chair for the Bishop. Walter Cundy gave lands here to the
Hermitage at Winforton.
     Mary Williams, of Albemarles, co. Carmarthen, Thomas
Whitney, of Whitney, and John Booth, Esq., of Hereford, gave
by deed in 1608 to Thomas Whitney, of Castleton, the farm of
Castleton, situated in Llanfair-y-cwm, esteemed as one-third of
the Manor of Clifford for £1,000 and a payment of 2s. for the hermit
for a term of years. This term by mesne assignments became
vested in Mary Williams, and she in consideration of £200 conveyed
it in 1666 to Thomas Whitney who agreed to pay all the debts of the
said Thomas Whitney. In 1691, Robert Duppa and Elisabeth his
wife and Baldwin Duppa, son and heir, were of Castleton which
they held of Whitney by lease and   assigned to William Wardour, of
St. Margaret's, Westminster. John Duppa, father of Robert, had
demised lands in Whitney to John Arnold to secure a mortgage.
Bryan Duppa, D.D., was Bishop of Winchester, and tutor to
Charles II and James II.
     The following is of interest in connection with Clifford during
the Caroline Civil War. "A Survey of several lands with the Rights
and Appurtenances thereof lying and being within the Parish of
Clifford in the County of Hereford late parcell of the possessions of
Charles Stewart, late King of England, made and taken by us whose
names are hereunto subscribed in the month of July, 1650, by virtue
of a Commission grounded upon an Act of Parliament for sale of the
Honours, Manors and Lands heretofore belonging to the late King,
Queen, or Prince under the hands and seals of five or more of the
Trustees in the said Act named and appointed. The lands consist     
of divers parcels of pasture, arable land and sheep pasture which

[Pages 26-41 not transcribed]


42                 COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

married Elizabeth Griffin of Buckmarsh, aet 21, both of whose
parents were dead in 1661. Six years later Humphrey Baskerville
occurs as Churchwarden. Edward Withsell and Gregory Pember
were proclaimed Papists in 1680.
     Nicholas Arnold was in 1576 seized of Llanthony and estates,
which comprised Eardisley, the remainder of which he settled on
John Arnold, his illegitimate son, by Mary Hore, widow, once wife
of Nicholas Hore, gent., of Wexford, and to the issue of John, with
remainder to Katherine, his illegitimate daughter, and her issue,
with remainder to Dorothy and Lucy, daughters of Rowland Arnold,
Esq., deceased, and their issue, with remainder to Thomas Porter
and his heirs. John Arnold + 1605.  
     Sir Thos. Duppa is mentioned as of Eardisley in 9 Charles I.,
and in 1666 Richard Duppa held the same lands. The latter was
lessee of Castleton Manor under Whitney.
     Before leaving the Baskervilles, Sir Thomas, a gallant general
of Queen Elizabeth's time, deserves mention. He married Mary,
daughter of Sir T. Throgmorton, and was father of Hannibal
Baskerville, the antiquary, dying in 1597, and being buried in Old
St. Paul's with the following epitaph, which may be given as a
specimen of the taste of the period:-

          These are the glories of a worthy praise
            Which, noble Baskerville, here now are read
          In honour of thy life and latter days,
            To number them among the blessed dead;
          A pure regard to thy immortal part,
            A spotless mind, a body prone to pain,
          A giving hand and an unvanquished heart;
            And all these virtues void of all disclaim.
          And all these virtues yet not so unknown,
            But Netherlands, Seas, India, Spain and France
          Can witness that these honours were thine own,
            Which they reserve, thy merit to advance,
          That valour should not perish void of fame,
          For noble deeds but leave a noble name.

     The Baskervilles end in co-heiresses.  One married a Coningsby
of Hampton Court, the other a Kent of Welson.  The name of the
patriarch of the family is found inscribed on the Roll at Battle
Abbey.  For many reigns they were champions to the Kings of
England.  Camden observes that "they deduce their original from
a niece of Gunora, that most celebrated Norman lady, who long ago
flourished in this county and its neighbour, Shropshire; and held

[Pages 43-76 not transcribed]


                      PARISH OF WHITNEY.                    77

                      PARISH OF WHITNEY.

WHITNEY is bounded North by Brilley, South by Clifford, E. by
Winforton and West by Brilley and Clifford. It contains rich
pastures near the river Wye by which it is beautifully intersected.
The higher grounds are well wooded, and two bridges, one old and
picturesque, the other modern, belonging to the Midland Railway,
cross the river.
     Two previous bridges were carried away by ice swept down in
floods. The present bridge was built about 1820 with wooden piers.
It has managed to endure many severe floods. Churchyard writes
of the salmon fisheries of the Wye:--

          Thing to note-when Salmon fails in Wye
          There still of course in Usk doth Salmon lye,
          And seems it strange, as doth through Wales appear
          In some one stream one Salmon all the year.
          So fresh, so sweet, so red, no crimp withall
          As man may say, so, Salmon's here at call.

     Fuller too says--"The river Wy affords brumal salmons, fat
and sound, when they are sick and spent in other places."
     Whitney is the modernised form of Witenei or Witenau, a Saxon
word implying "the clear water stream with boggy islands." Under
"Terra Regis" in Domesday it is stated "The King holds Witenie
in Elsedune Hundred. Alunard was its owner in the reign of King
Edward, a freeman, able to travel where he pleased. Half a hide
is taxable which has been and is waste. The Church itself, St.
Guthlac," (monastery) "has Witenie and Herald" (Ear1 Harold)
"is the occupier.  There are four hides taxable which are and have
been in a state of waste; they pay now a rental of six shillings."
     Whitney was taken out of Wales and made part of Herefordshire
(Description of Wales. By Sir J. Price.) It was formerly part
of Gwent, one of the six provinces of the kingdom of Dinevowr and
was within the district of Ergyng.
     In 1242 the Sheriff of the County of Hereford commanded a
good breach to be made through the woods of Erdeslagh, Brimlegh
and Wittneye, so that there might be a safe passage between the
City of Hereford and Maud's Castle. (Testa de Nevill.)
     Thurstin the Fleming, a companion of the Conqueror, rewarded
with the grant of the Wigmore district, married Agnes, only child of
Alured de Merleburgh, who settled the Manor of Pencomb on her as

78                       COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

a marriage portion, and her husband is credited with having obtained
the Manor of Whitney. Their son, Eustace, assumed the surname
of de Whitney from this manor. He joined his mother in a grant
of the subordinate Manor of Sudenhall (hodie Sidnall in the parish
of Pencomb), (Vo1. II., p. 150) to the monks of Gloucester Abbey.
     Sir Eustace de Whitney occurs as lord of Whitney in 1299
which he held of the Crown. He also held a capital messuage with
200 acres in the Manor of Huntington, by the service of one foot
soldier with a bow and arrows in the time of war at the Castle,
during a period of 40 days at his own charge. He was summoned
in 1301 to attend the muster in Berwick "equis et armis" to march
against the Scotch. *
     His successor, another Eustace de Whitney, dubbed a Knight
in 1306, was M.P. for the County in 1312-13 and certified in the
parliamentary writ to be lord of the townships of Pencomb, Cowarne,
and Whitney. In A.D. 1339 he had a charter of free-warren in
these Manors and was a Knight of the Shire for his County in the
parliaments 1350-1.  
     The arms of Whitney of Whitney are Azure a cross cheeky or
and sa.†
     Sir Robert de Whitney, patron of Pencombe 1353 was selected
in 1368 with 200 Knights and gentlemen to accompany the Duke of
Clarence to Milan on the occasion of his marriage.‡ In 1358 John,
son of Edward de Pembruge paid a gross fine of 100s. for license to
enfeoff Robert de Whitney and Thomas de Hampton in the manor
of Boutred (Boughrood) and of Eton in the County of Hereford.
Baldwin de Whitney with Richd. de Hurtesley were appointed by
Royal Order to act as his agents during Sir Robert's absence in
Italy. Sir Robert was Sheriff of the County in 1377 and one of its
representatives in several parliaments. He was a commissioner
with William de Beauchamp, Captain of Calais, and others in
negotiating a Treaty with the Count of Flanders in 1388,§ and
__________________________________________________________________
   * Compare the following--A.D. 1816 de veniendo ad Regem cum equis et armis pro
guerra Scotiae. Thomas de Berkeley, Maurice de Berkeley, Fulco Extraneus, Johannes
Charlton, Braose de Knowl, Willmus Tuket, Alanus Plakenet, Robertus de Stapleton,
Robertus de Grendon, Johes Giffard de Brymesfeld, Clifford, &c., Johes de Patesahll, Thos.
de Pipa, Robertus de Rocheford, Barthol de Badlesmere, Willus de Grandison, Nicholas de
Audley, Geoffrey de Saye, Roger Mortimer de Wigmore, John de Cantilupe.
   † Strong's Heraldry of Herefordshire.
   ‡ Rymer, p. 447.
   § French Rolls, 338.

                         PARISH OF WHITNEY.                     79

serving with the royal forces in Normandy was appointed to hold the
Castle of Cherbourg, which fortress in 1393 he delivered to the King
of Navarre.*
     In 1394 he was Marshal of the King's household, but in 1399
deserted his royal master and joined the partizans of the Duke of
Hereford, Henry IV. While opposing the forces of Owen Glendwr
in 1401, he was killed at the battle of Pilleth together with his
uncle and many relatives and retainers. His Castle at Whitney was
captured and burnt.
     Sir Robert Whitney the Second had from Henry IV, in
consideration of has father's services, a grant of the Castles, and
Lordships of Clifford and Glasbury, during the minority of the Earl
of March (Pat. Roll. 5, Henry IV, No. 372).† Sir Robt. took an
active part in the triumph of the English Arms in France under
Henry V. He attended the King's forces with a company of his
own retainers, and was appointed in 1422 Captain of Vire (Norm. Rolls.
8, Henry V, p. 2, No. 12). In that year, too, he was elected M.P.
for his County. He married Joan, daughter of Thomas Oldcastle,
of Nether Lawton and Birt's Norton, and dying March 1441 without
issue, was succeeded by his brother Eustace. His younger brother
is mentioned as taking part at Agincourt in 1416, for which and his
other services he obtained a grant of land (Norman Rolls, temp.
Henry V.)
_____________________________________________________________________
   * French Rolls, 17 Rich. II, m. 13.
   † "The King to all, Greeting."
"Know ye that since the father of Robert Whitney, Esqre., and his uncle and a great
part of his Relatives have been killed in our service at the capture of Edmund Mortimer,
and his property has been burnt and destroyed by our rebels of Wales, so that the said
Robert has not any Castle or fortress where he can tarry to resist and punish our aforesaid
rebels as we recognise them.--We, of our special Grace have granted to the sd. Robert the
Castle of Clifford and Lordships of Clifford and Glasbury, together with all the lands  
tenements, rents, royalties, and other commodities, whatsoever to the said Castle and
Lordships in any manner belonging to and also full punishment and execution of all rebels
who are or shall be of or in the said lordships with all forfeitures and escheats of such
rebels, which Castle and Lordships before they were destroyed by the said rebels were of the
value of 100 marks per ann. ut fertur; the sd. Robert to hold the Castle and Lordships 
aforesd. with all the said profits and appurtenances from 15th day of October last until the
full age of Edmund, son and heir of the Earl of March last deceased and so from heir to
heir, until any one of the heirs may arrive at full age without rendering anything to us or to
our heirs at our Exchequer during the minority of the heirs aforesd. The sd. Robert to
repair the sd. Castles and tarry in them for their defence. Should the value of the occupancy
of the Castle and Lordships exceed 100 marks per ann. the sd. Robert shall answer to us
yearly at our exchequer for the surplusage as may be just. Witness the King at
Westminster, 14th day of February, 1402."

Handwritten note:
p. 79 - note in correction -
  Inq. post mortem of Thomas Oldcastle's
son Richard names Eustace Whitney
son of Joan or Wentliana as one of the
heirs.  Eustace was son of Sir Robert
 Whitney, not brother.
  I have examined the Inq. p. m. of
Richard Oldcastle my self.
  August 14, 1942 - Rupert Taylor

80                          COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

     Eustace Whitney is mentioned in a Royal Commission of 1454,
and as M.P. for Herefordshire in 1467. The inquest at his death
has not been found. His wife was Jeanette, daughter of Sir Thomas
Russell, and he was succeeded by his eldest son, Sir Thos. Whitney,
who represented his County in 1431 and died unmarried.
     Sir Robt. Whitney, his brother, Sheriff in 1479, married Alice
daughter of Sir Thomas ap Sir Roger Vaughan of Hargest, an event
celebrated by an effusive epithalamium in Welsh by the local poet,
Lewis Glyn Cothi. (Archaelog. Cambren., 1880, 4th S. Vol. xi.,
p. 226.) On her decease without issue, he married Constance,
daughter of James, Lord Audley, and their second son Sir
James married Blanch, fourth daughter and coheir of Simon
Milborn, and left at his early decease in 1500, two sons. James had
an estate in Clifford and died without issue, giving substantial legacies
to his two half-brothers. Blanch, Lady Whitney, having married,
secondly, Sir William Herbert of Troy House, co. Monmouth,
Robert Whitney, the eldest son, succeeding in right of his mother to
the Manor of Icomb, co. Gloucester, became a resident of that estate
and his name is included in the Commission of Assize for that
County in 1530 and 1537. He is described as K.B. in the royal
proclamation for the crowning of Anne Boleyn, an honour which he
declined. He was appointed on a Commission to suppress a rebellion
in Lincolnshire and died in 1541, leaving issue by his wife, Margaret,
daughter of Robert Wye of Lypiatt Park, Stroud, seven sons and two
daughters, all under age, in the care of their mother in whose
possession his many estates were left until the sons attained
respectively their twenty-fourth year. One Samuel Hyett died in
1546 holding the Manors of Eaton and Kilpeck and also a Manor
called Whitney in the honour of Clifford and six messuages, seven
hundred acres of land, four hundred and thirty of meadow and eighty
of pasture, four hundred of wood and four of rent, and also four
messuages and lands in Frogashe. The second son of Robert
Whitney, Robert, was his heir. John then became entitled to a
lease of Great Rollright, co. Oxford, with 400 ewes, 5 oxen, 8 kine and
2 horses. Charles obtained a lease of a farm in Great Rissington,
and 400 wethers or their market value; George, the lease of
Malgasbury Farm, 300 sheep or their value; William, lease of
Chantry lands in Great Rissington and 400 wethers. James also
received £20; Richard £20; Blanch for her marriage £200 ; Mary

                         PARISH OF WHITNEY.                    81

£100. Robert of Icomb's will is dated 23rd May and was proved
11th June, 1541.
     Robert, the eldest son who succeeded to a plentiful inheritance,
was on October 2nd, 1553 one of many gentlemen dubbed Knights
the day after the coronation of Queen Mary, before her in her
chamber of presence at Westminster under the Cloth of State by the
Earl of Arundel. Sir Robert graduated B.C.L. at Oxford in 1532,
and was M.P. for the County of Hereford in 1558, in which year he
died. He married Sybil, daughter of Sir James Baskerville, and
was succeeded by his eldest son in 1567.
     Sir James Whitney, thrice Sheriff, died unmarried in 1587,
directing by his will, (made in May and proved in June, 1587,)
that his burial place should be in the Church of Whitney, wherever
his father and ancestors had been interred. He devised the family
estates under a very explicit yet generous entail to his brothers,
Eustace and Robert, and their issue male with remainder to his
uncles, George and William Whitney and the Whitneys of Clyro
and Clifford. The Chancery proceedings in Elizabeth's reign include
Thomas Mill and Mary his wife v. Eustace Whitney, Esq., and
William Whitney, gent., for specific performance of a devise of lands
under the will of Sir James Whitney and of the manors of Whitney,
Pencomb and Icomb.
     In 1586 Sir James Whitney and John Garnons made an official
report to the Council respecting recusants (Dom. S. Papers, Vol. 189).
     Eustace Whitney, Sheriff of Radnorshire, 1595, died 1608,
having married Margaret, daughter and heiress of William Vaughan
of Glasbury who predeceased him in 1606, leaving a family of five
children.
1. Sir Robert, of whom presently.
2. Thomas, born 1595, graduated B.A. from Brasenose College,
     1609, having matriculated "generosi fil," age 9 in 1605.
     He is considered to have been the Captain Thomas Whitney
     who sailed to the coast of Guinea in the expedition under
     Sir W. Ralegh and to have died, unmarried, after his return
     in 1621.
3. Eleanor, married Sir Henry Williams, of Cabalva.
4. Joan, born 1695, married John Wigmore, of Lucton.
5. Blanch, married Robert, son of John Duppa of Castleton.

     Sir Robert Whitney, born 1592, Knighted 1616, Sheriff 1638,

82                       COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

married Anne, the fourth daughter of Sir Thomas Lucy, of Charlecote,
Warwickshire.  In 1620 he was an earnest collector of contributions
in this Hundred for the Bohemian Loan.  When Sheriff it fell to his
duty to collect the unpopular and arbitrary impost of Ship Money.
He was a strenuous supporter of the King during the Civil War and
died m 1653, leaving a numerous family; Robert, born 1615;
Richard, of the Inner Temple.  He was buried in its Church.
Francis and William; Constance died 1628 at the age of 17, and was
buried in the Church of St. Giles, Cripplegate, where a monument is
placed to her memory.*  Lady Whitney predeceased Sir Robert,
but in what year has not been ascertained.
     His estate is said to have been worth £1,000 a year, but before
his death ln 1653 the valuable lands of Pencomb had been sold,
and by the decease of his only son without issue, the name became
extinct and the family property was divided among his daughters and
co-heirs.
     In 1669 administration was granted to Eleanor Whitney (alias
Wright) and Susannah Whitney (alias Williams) of the goods of
Elizabeth Whitney, spinster, who held property in two dioceses.
     The name of Thomas Whitney, only surviving son, born in
1622 was included at the Restoration in the list of Herefordshire
Royalists to be Knights of the contemplated order of the Royal Oak,
and the rental of his estates was stated at £2,000 per annum.†  He
married in 1666, Elizabeth, only child of Col. Wm. Cope, of Icomb,
and his wife, the Lady Elizabeth Fane, third daughter of the first
Earl of Westmorland and widow of John Cope, of Hanwell, Co.
Oxon.
___________________________________________________________________
   * The inscription runs:--" S.M. Constance Whitney, eldest daur. "to Sir Robert
Whitney, of Whitney, the proper possession of him and of his ancestors in Herefordshire for
above 500 years past.  Her mother was the fourth daughter of Sir Thomas Lucy, of
Charlecote, in Warwickshire, by Constance, daughter and heiress of Richard Kingsmill,
Surveyor of the Court of Wards. This Lady Lucy her grandmother so bred her since she
was eight years old that she excelled in all noble qualities becoming a Virgin of so sweet
proportion of Beauty and Harmony of Parts. She had all sweetness of manners answerable,
a delightful sharpness of Wit and offenceless modesty of conversation, a singular respect and
piety towards her Parents but religious even to example. She departed this life most
Christianly at seventeen; dying the grief of all but to her grandmother an unrecoverable
loss save in her expectation she shall not stay long after her and the comfort of knowing whose
she is and where in the Resurrection to meet her." (Markland's London). (See a plate of
the Monument in The Ancestry of John Whitney. By Henry Melville, A.M., New York, p. 184).
   † One West a tenant in Whitney could perfectly prescribe to hold the land of Thomas
Whitney, lord of Whitney, by Homage Ancestral, "which is where a tenant and his ancestors
held land of a lord and his ancestors by homage time out of mind." (Blount.)

                          PARISH OF WHITNEY.                      83

     In 1690 Robert Price, Esq., conveyed to William Wardour, of
Westminster in consideration of £4,848 a quarter of Whitney Manor,
Sheepcot Farm, Manor House, of Whitney, the Rectory, Castleton
Farm, water corn-mill, Courts Leet and Baron, view of Frankpledge
and Copyholds in Whitney and Clifford.
     In 1692, being in failing health and without issue Thomas
Whitney decided to set aside the entail of a certain portion of his
estates recognised in his marriage settlement by a deed in which the
preamble recites that "for his love and affection for Elizabeth his
wife and for the bettering and increased her jointure and for barring
entail, he consents to levy a fine of the capital mansion house of
Whitney and Whitney Park, the Castle and Manor of Clifford and
Llanvair-y-brine and Park of Clifford." By his will he gave his
widow an annuity on these properties with the Court House for
residence whilst a widow, and the manor of Icomb as her absolute
disposal. Subject to such encumbrance he gave his estates for equal
division among his four sisters or their representatives.
     The estate thus sold consisted of Whitney Manor and the
properties above named. The four sisters in whom the estates were
invested were Lucy, late wife of John Booth, of Le Hom; Susannah,
widow of Henry Williams, of Cabalva; Ann, widow of Thomas Rodd;
and Eleanor, widow of Dr. Thomas Wright. These in due course
of law conveyed their respective shares to Mr. W. Wardour, who
married in 1685 the second daughter of Robert Rodd, of Foxley.
     Robert Rodd, only son of John and Ann Rodd, having three
daughters, his co-heiresses, gave his mother's quarter share to Robert
Price, husband of Lucy, eldest co-heiress, and conveyed his share
to Wm. Wardour of Lincoln's Inn and Westminster, Barrister-at-
Law, who by private treaty acquired the shares of the other sisters;
viz., Lucy, born 1609, who died in 1673 leaving three daughters by
two husbands; Susannah, widow of H. Williams, of Cabalva, whose
son, David Williams, M.D., of Hereford, married 1694 his cousin
Constance Wright; Eleanor, married Nathaniel Wright, M.D. and
had one child, Constance, wife of David Williams.  
     Mrs. Elizabeth Whitney married secondly Mr. Thomas Geers,
Serjeant-at-Law, of the Marsh Estate in Bridge Sollers and had an
only child, Elizabeth, who married in 1698 William Gregory, of
How Caple and was left a widow in 1702 with a son and daughter
(Vo1. III., p. 1.) She married secondly, 1705, Richard Hopton, of

84                     COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

Canon Frome, M.P., for Herefordshire 1714-22 and died 1747
leaving a numerous family. Her mother, Mrs. Geers, had become a
second time a widow in 1700 and died at Canon Frome Court, 1731,
at the age of 82.
     Mr. William Wardour, who thus became owner of the Whitney
inheritance married, as said above, in September, 1685, Anna Sophia,
second daughter of Robert Rodd, of Foxley. She died aet 71 in
1737 and was buried in Westminster Abbey. He held the patent
office of Clerk of the Pells in Chancery, a lucrative legal position
enjoyed by his relatives during a long series of years. When
owner of Whitney Court he made the mansion house his residence
during the legal vacations, and died in Westminster, 1699, leaving
his landed estate to his elder son, Col. William Wardour, born July,
1686, who represented Calne in 1727 and Fowey, 1737-46 in
Parliament. He died unmarried in 1746 bequeathing the Whitney
estate, (which his father had purchased from Mr. Price), to his only
brother with legacies to numerous relatives, among others to Mrs.
Silet Dew and her son, Tomkyns Dew. Although he rebuilt
Whitney Church on his estate, he directed his body to be laid in
Westminster Abbey.
     The following epitaphs from Mr. J. L. Chester's Extracts, &c.,*
are interesting in connection with the family of Wardour.
     "Page 347, 1736-7, Feb. 25th, Anna Sophia Wardour in the
middle aisle.
     "Daughter and co-heir of Robert Rodd, of Foxley, Co.
Hereford, Esq., by Anna Sophia, daughter and heir of Thos. Neale,
of Warnford, Hants. She married at St. Bride's, London, 10th
September, 1685."
     "William Wardour, of Whitney Court, Co. Hereford, Esq.,
Clerk of Appeals to whose estate she administered 2nd May, 1699.
She died according to her monument 17th February, aged 71. Her
son, William, administered to her estate 4th March, 1736-7. The
newspapers of the day say she died at Bath."
     "Page 370, 1746, July 26th. William Wardour, Esq., in the
middle aisle, son of William Wardour, of Whitney Court, Co.
Hereford Esq., by Anna Sophia his wife. He was born the 12th,
and baptized at St. Giles in the Fields, Middlesex, 15th July,
1686. He was M.P. for Fowey, and died unmarried 17th July,
_________________________________________________________________
   * Westminster Abbey Registers; edited by J. L. Chester. Harleian Society Publications,
Vol. x., 1875.

                         PARISH OF WHITNEY.                     85

according to the Funeral-book, aged 60. His will, dated 28th June,
1746, was proved 29th July following by his brother Tompkins
Wardour, Esq., to whom he left all his estate subject to a few
legacies to his cousins, viz.: John Wardour of the Excise Office and
his daughter Virtue Wardour, Mrs. Margaret Pitches, Mrs. Jane
Gilmore, widow, Mrs. Silet Dew, widow, and her son, Tompkins
Dew and Mrs. Margaret Fleetwood, spinster."
     Page 382. 1752, February 22nd. The Hon. Colonel Tompkins
Wardour; died the 13th in the middle aisle. Son of William
Wardour, of Whitney Court, Co. Hereford, Esq., by Anna Sophia
his wife. The Funeral-book and his monument gives his age as 64.
In the Journals of the period he was called, in 1746, Lieut.-Colonel
in the Guards, and at his death Colonel of the Regiment of Invalids.
His will, as Tompkyns Wardour, of St. George's, Hanover Square,
Esq., dated 12th February, 1750-1, was proved 16th March, 1752,
by his relict Elizabeth."
     "Page 409. 1767, June 30th. Elizabeth, widow of the
Hon. Colonel Tomkyns Wardour in the middle aisle. They were
married at St. James's, Westminster, 14th April, 1730. In the
marriage allegation at the Faculty Office, dated 14th April, she was
described as Elizabeth Jones, of St. George's, Hanover Square,
Middlesex, widow. Her maiden name appears to have been Bourne.
She died accorded to the Funeral-book 23rd June, aged 79. Her
will dated the 27th February, 1752, with a codicil 21st February,
1757, was proved 7th July, 1767, by her sister Mary Bourne,
spinster, residuary legatee."
     This Mary Bourne left Whitney and the Wardour property by
will to Tompkyns Dew, of Lincoln's Inn, and his heirs male, from
whom it has passed in the usual course of descent.
     A few more particulars may be added concerning the family of
Whitney. Several important branches flourish in North America.
John Whitney, the first of the name to cross the Atlantic, left
London in the Spring of 1635 with his wife Elinor, and his sons
John, Richard, Nathaniel, Thomas, and Jonathan. From him Mr.
H. Melville, the Historian of the family, is descended.
     "By the marriage of Robert Whitney, about 1470, with
Constance, daughter of Baron Audley, and grand-daughter of the
Earl of Kent, and of another Robert, about 1540, with Sybil,
daughter of Sir James Baskerville, the Whitneys of to-day can claim

86                        COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

the blood of some of those whose names are most familiar in English
history--the Saxon Kings, Alfred the Great, and Edmund Ironside;
the Normans, William the Conqueror, and Henry I.; the Plan-
tagenets, Henry II., John, Henry III., and Edward I., to say
nothing of the members of the royal houses of Scotland, France, and
Spain, with whom these were allied."*
     "The earliest mention of the name De Wytteneye in any public
record so far discovered, is in 1241."†
     The antiquity of the family of Dew is amusingly attested by
Shakespeare:--

Ancient Pistol.--"Art thou a gentleman? What is thy name? Discuss.
French Soldier.--O Seigneur Dieu!
Ancient Pistol.--O Seigneur Dewe should be a gentleman.
                 Perpend my words, O Seigneur Dieu, and mark;
                 O Seigneur Dieu thou didst on point of fox,
                 Except, O Seigneur, thou dost give to me
                 Egregious welcome.
Boy.--           He prays you to save his life; he is a gentleman of a good house, and for
                     his ransom he will give yon two hundred crowns."
                                                                        (Hen. V., 4. 10.)

                    ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY.
          PATRONS.                          RECTORS.
Senior de Braos (pro hac vice)  1277  
Bishop of Hereford (by lapse)   1284  Richard de la Sele.
Patron not mentioned          - 1328  Adam Lowe.
Eustace de Whitney -          - 1345  Thomas de Whitney.
The same   -                  - 1349  John Rees.
Sir Robert de Whitney         - 1373  Philip de Almeley.
Bishop of Hereford (by lapse)   1393  John Hales.
                                1417  Reginald Lane.
Nobilis Vir, Robertus Whitney,  1428  John Hare.
  Eques.   -                  - 1429  Richard ap Howell.
                                1435  Richard Griffiths.
Sir Robert Whitney -          - 1479  James Eston, vacated.
Feoffees‡ of Sir Robt. Whitney 1505  Owen Pole.
_____________________________________________________________________
   * "The Ancestry of John Whitney," ut supra p. 6.    † Do. p. 42.
   * ‡ These Feoffees were Simon Milborne, Walter Baskerville, James Scudamore, John
Breynton, Simon Herring.

                        PARISH OF WHITNEY.                   87

          RECTORS.                          PATRONS.

The King, owing to the mi-   }
nority of Robert, son of Sir } 1544  James ap Hopton, deprived.
Robt. Whitney      -         }      
Bishop of Hereford (by lapse)  1555  Roger Lawrence.
Sir Robert Whitney -         - 1560  Thomas Grosvenor.
Eustace Whitney, Esq.        - 1574  James Popkin.
Sir Robert Whitney           - 1607  Matthew Huddleston.
Sir Robert Whitney -         { 1632  Christopher Harvey.*
                             { 1640  Jonathan Dryden.
(Civil War)        -         { 1654  } Ralph Brideoak.
                             { 1661  }
Thomas Whitney, Esq.         - 1663  Daniel Wycherley, D.D.,
                                       Prebendary.
Thomas Geers, Esq. -         { 1677  Thomas Mallett, M.A. (died).
                             { 1678  Thomas Hitchcock, M.A.
    -      -       -         - 1680  ----- Cope.
    -      -       -         - 1690  Thomas Whalleson.
    -      -       -         - 16 -  John Prosser.
Elizabeth Geers, widow       - 1690  Samuel Hall, B.C.L.
Tamerlane Hords, Gent.; p.h.v. 1727  John Powell.
    -      -       -         - 17 -  Timothy Geers.
Honble Tomkyns Wardour,
  Esq.     -       -         - 1746  Edward Crank, M.A.
Elizabeth Wardour, widow     - 1763  Edward Edwards, M.A.
Executors of Tompkyns Dew,
  Esq.     -       -         - 1806  John Thomas Stuart.
Tompkyns Dew, Esq.           { 1834  Richard Lister Venables, A.M.
                             { 1843  Henry Dew, A.B.

     Whitney is a Rectory endowed with a rent-charge of £234, with
a commodious residence and 17 acres of Glebe.
     Taxation of Pope Nicholas, circ. 1291, "Eecl'ia de Wytteneye,
5 : 0 : 0 0 : 10 : TMT."
     In "a true and perfect Terrier of all the houses, lands, and
tenths of the Rectory of Whitney, taken by the Minister and certain
Inhabitants of Whitney September 29th, in the year of our Lord
God 1636," occur the following particulars:--
___________________________________________________________________
   * One of the Poets of Herefordshire.

88                  COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

     "Imprimis the parsonage house containing of all sorts, little
and great, seaventeen roomes."
     "It; the barne and other houses containing of all sorts, great
and small, seaven roomes.
     "It; the garden, orchard, hopyard and fould, containing in all
halve an acre more or lesse."
     "It; the glebe lands being fouer parcels of pasture containing
in all fifteen acres more or less, and being all within one hedge
between the lands of Sir Robert Whitney, Knight, John Duppa,
gentleman, the aforesaid hopyard adjoins the . . . . and the
green in Whitney towne on the south, the King's highway on
the west, and the lands of the said John Duppa on all other
parts."
     "It; one parcell of common in Whitney wood by agreement
enclosed."
     Tradition says that William Swinderby, a priest of the Diocese
of Lincoln and a Lollard, together with Walter Brut, came into
Herefordshire and preached at Whitney. In 1391 a citation was
ordered by the Bishop of Hereford's writ, July 5th. The sentence
was passed by the Bishop, "pro tribunali sedens," that Swinderby
was heretical and to be avoided of all faithful Christians.
     The Church was dedicated to St. Peter and St. Paul, but is now
known as St. Paul's. The house below the Church is called St.
Paul's House, while the well in the glebe field above the Church is
known as St. Peter's Well. The village Feast is kept on the first
Sunday in August.
     The site of Whitney Castle, which, like the Church, was swept
away by the Wye, is a little below the old Court, marked as "Ruins
in Isaac Taylor's map, 1704.
     A Church traditionally considered to have been erected on the
left bank of the river by the Monks of St. Guthlac, Hereford, previous
to the arrival of the Normans, was swept away, together with the
Rectory House, in 1735, by a flow of unprecedented violence. It
forced the waters of the Wye into a new Channel, and carried away
the contents of the Church and Churchyard. The present building
consists of a Chancel, Nave, and Tower, and was erected on another
site by the Patron in 1748. The Norman Font and some portions
of the dilapidated edifice which remained were amalgamated with the
new building.

                          PARISH OF WHITNEY.                     89

     The tower contains five bells. In 1892 a large bell was re-hung
by the Parish ringers in memory of their relatives.
     The Chancel was thoroughly restored by the Rector in 1868.
It is separated from the Nave by a wall which bears the inscription:--
"This Church was built at the sole expense of William Wardour
A.D. 1748."
     The first date in the Parish Registers begins at 1591. The
book itself is in good preservation.
     The following entry occurs in 1633. "Liberty was granted to
Eustace Gough of this parish, being sick, for the recovery of his
health to eat flesh in times prohibited by law, so long as his present
sickness doth continue."
     One new window in the north wall of the nave is filled with
stained glass and inscribed: "In memory of Philip Stevens" + 1889
aet 62.
     A second new and beautiful window, also in the north wall, is
filled with stained glass as a memorial of Miss Frances Dew + 1888
aet 70. It represents works of mercy.
     An iron mortuary has been placed in the Churchyard by Mrs.
Laetitia Stephens in memory of her husband, the above named Philip
Stephens who cut the stone tracery of these windows.
     A third new window is inserted near the door on the South,
containing figures of St. Peter and St. Paul, thus inscribed: "This
window is dedicated to the glory of God in the Church where the
esteemed Rector, Rev. Henry Dew, has ministered for a period of 50
years; 1843-1893. W.C.W., W.W.R., H.M., 1893." It is the
gift of three of the American representatives of the Whitney family.
     The following monuments are placed in the Chancel; one of
white marble supported on pillars of grey of elaborate workmanship
with arms, inscribed "Thomas Williams of Cabalva in the County of
Radnor, Esqre., married Elizabeth 3rd daughter of Edward Holford
of Cerleby, Co. Lincoln, Esq., and had issue one only daughter
Elizabeth." + May, 1698 aet 38.

          "Here lies his body mingled with the dust,
          Whose life was holy, humble, good and just."

John Spencer Esq. + 1826, aet 66.
     On the South wall, a white marble shield on a black slab:
"Armine Dew, Captn. Royal Artillery, Fifth Son of Tomkyns Dew,
Esq. and Margaret Beatrice his wife, killed in action at the glorious

90                    COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

Battle of the Alma 20th Sept. 1854 aet 27 years. His warfare is
accomplished."
     North wall a brass: "Reginald Dew 6th Son of Tomkyns Dew
and Margaret Beatrice Dew. Born 1833 + in London 1864.
According to Thy mercy remember Thou me."
     Do., another brass: "John Monkhouse during 53 years resident
at the Stow in this Parish born 1781 + 1866. The Lord my God
will enlighten my darkness."
     Nave, South-east: "Armine Styleman Furlong, eldest dtr. of
Lieut.-Col. C. J. Furlong and Armine his wife, (dtr. of the late
Tompkyns Dew Esq. of Whitney)." Born at Hunstanton in
Norfolk 1820 + at Bath 1880.
     North wall of Nave, marble tablet: "Anne Powell, the second
dtr, of Rev. Armine Styleman, Rector of Ringstead in Norfolk who
was first married to Tomkyns Dew, Esq., of Whitney Court and
afterwards to Thomas Powell, Esq., Lieut.-Col. of H.M. 11th Regt.
of Foot, + 1823, aet 62."
     North-east wall of Nave, marble tablet with wreath: "Alice
Georgiana, wife of Frederick Hogge of Biggleswade, Co. Bedford,
Esq., and 7th daughter of Tomkyns and Margaret Beatrice Dew of
Whitney Court; born March 1832 + at Bedford after a few days'
illness, 1833."
     South wall of Chancel: "Edward Le Strange Dew, Barrister at
Law, 3rd Son of Tomkyns and Margaret Beatrice Dew, + of fever
at Baldock, Herts; Oct. 3, 1861 aet 39."
     The East window of the Chancel has two lights filled with
stained glass. The scriptural subjects are chosen from their
connection with the sea. In the dexter light Our Lord is
represented stilling the tempest, in the sinister Our Lord and St.
Peter are walking on the water. The details consist of nautical
emblems. On a brass plate under the window: "To the glory of
God and the beloved memory of Roderick Dew, Capn. R.N. C.B.,
who after many years of distinguished service in various parts of the
world + at Lisbon, March 24, 1869, in command of H.M.S.
Northumberland, aet 54."
     North wall of Chancel, white marble tablet: "Tomkyns Dew of
Whitney Court, Esq., only son of Tomkyns Dew Esq. and Ann his
wife, daughter of Rev. Armine Styleman. Born July 1791. + Feb.
1, 1853, leaving a widow and thirteen children to lament their loss.

                       PARISH OF WHITNEY.                      91

          In health he labored with unwearied zeal,
          For Truth, for Justice and the Public Weal;
          By sickness bound, he humbly kissed the rod,
          Resigned all cares and turned for Rest to God.

also Margaret Beatrice his wife, eldest daughter of Rev. Timothy
Napleton, rector of Powderham, Devon. Born 1794 + July 1877."
     On a flat stone George, son of George and Jane Dyke of Brilley
+ 1845 aet 14, and George Dyke late of the City of Hereford + 1856
aet 62. (The Dykes lived at the Church House).
     Externally, south side, Walter Griffith + 1781 aet 23.
          "Dear Parents, don't lament my fall
          For Death shall triumph over all,
          At 23 I felt his Power
          And soon became a dieing Flower
          But its a brave exchainge optained
          When Earth is left and Heaven is gain'd.
          Was to my parents dutyful and kind
          Learning was a thing I much did mind."

                              BURIALS.

          Outside, on the West.           |            On the South.
Alcock, Matilda; + 1891, aet 75.          |  Bishop, Edward; + 1825, aet 87.
Beavan, Willm.; + 1857, aet 76.           |  Bowen, John; + 1852, aet 78.
Colley, John; (Orchard Place) + 1889,     |  Bowen, Martha; + 1799, aet 77.
  aet 72.                                 |  Evans, Catherine; + 1871, aet 46.
East, Fanny Elizth.; + 1887, aet 14.      |  Hancorn, Richd.; 1750, aet 65 (Arms,
Hodges, Thos.; + 1867, aet 58.            |    3 cocks).
Mann, John; + 1885, aet 72.               |  Lewis, Richd.; 1805, aet 27.
Matthews, Mary; (Rees), + 1874, aet 75.   |  Lewis, Willm.; 1853, aet 29.
Tombs, Thos.; 1884, aet 70.               |  Mills, John; 1844, aet 49.
Wilton, Thos.; + 1882, aet 26.            |  Price, Edwd.; + 1855, aet 40.
                                          |  Turner, Mary; (Millhall), + 1858, aet 13.
          On the North.                   |
Arrowsmith, Stephen; + 1858, aet 74.      |            On the East.
Lewis, George; + 1892, aet 50.            |  Dew, Tomkyns; + 1853.
Price, Willm.; (Lanigon), + 1884, aet 51. |  ------------- + 1891, aet 75.
Roberts, Elizth.; + 1872, aet 38.         |  Dewing,  Rosette; (The Stow), + 1869, aet 23.
Turner, John Michael; Rock House, +       |  Monkhouse, John; 1866, aet 84.
  1892, aet 52.

     The following interested letters on Ship-money may be
appended. Domestic State Paper, temp. Charles I., Vol. 343, No.
56, Jany. 9th, 1647-8.
     "The Council to Sir Robert Whitney, now Sheriff (of Hereford-
shire), and Thomas Wigmore late Sheriff.
     "It appears to the Board that William Scudamore late Sheriff of
Co. H., who had the charge of the Ship-money writ of 1635, levied and
paid out of £4000, £3564 10s. 11 1/2d., and that the remainder payable

                      COUNTY OF HEREFORD.                       92

by the County was only £175 9s. 0d., whereof Scudamore by order of
the board, dated 28th April, 1636, gave a memorial together with
the Writ and instructions to Wigmore, the succeeding Sheriff, who
had likewise command from the Board for levying the said arrears and
accordingly levied divers parcels thereof, so that there is now in
arrear only £84 3s. 5d. Forasmuch as Scudamore cannot possibly
know what persons are behind in payment which can rest only in the
knowledge of Wigmore, who ought long since to have paid in the
arrears, the Lords require from him on pain of H. Majesty's displeasure
and a severe proceeding to pay to Sir Wm. Russell so much
of the said arrears as is already collected and not paid in and to
collect the residue of the said arrears and pay the same to the
Treasurer of the Navy by the first day of Easter Term next, or else
to attend H. Majesty and the Board at the second sittings of the
Council in Easter term."
     D.S.P., Vol. 417, No. 44, 1639.
Sir Robert Whitney, Sheriff of Herefordshire to Mr. Secy. Nicholas.
                                         Whitney, 6th April, 1639.
     "Your letter of 11th March has come to hand whereby I am
required to hasten to the council board on account of my proceedings
in the business of shipping, which I had done long ago but that I
daily expected better performance from those who by the Lords'
directions were to be employed therein than hitherto I can obtain.
For by the Lords' letter received together with H. Majesty's Writ
I was required to return to the Lords, within one month after the
assessments made by me a certificate not only of the several sums
[of] assessment upon each parish in general, but likewise of the
particular payment which every Clergyman in each of them is
charged with. I cannot yet get the sums assessed in each parish
distributed among the particular inhabitants by the Chief Constables
to whose care I entrusted that service and without whom it was
impossible I should do so of myself, they excusing themselves upon
the Petty Constables, and they upon the inhabitants who being
warned neglected to assist them. So that notwithstanding my
utmost endeavours to quicken them I have not received the assessments
entire save only for four hundreds of eleven, which to have
returned to the Board alone without the rest, I feared wd have
further displeased than satisfied the Lords. To some whom I find
to be most blameworthy I have directed particular warrants requiring

                        PARISH OF WHITNEY.                      93

their present repair to me, with securities for their personal
appearance before the Lords to answer their contempt and neglect,
but none of them as yet have come. For the levying of these
assessments which I have received I have granted Warrants and
daily expect the return of them but have as yet not received one
penny of any Man which I entreat the Lords to impute not to any
negligence in me than whom there neither is nor shall there be any
man more zealously affected to the furtherance of H.M.'s Service,
but to the impossibility that lies upon me to proceed in levying
the money until they be assessed wherein the assistance of the
Inhabitants being by the Lord's directions to be taken for the
avoiding of all inequalities the expectation thereof has occasioned
me the necessity of this excuse and you the trouble to call upon me
for it. If it be the Lords' pleasure I should return these assessments
already received or to direct what further course I should take
for the distribution of the rest, I shall apply myself to observe the
Lords' orders."
     Vol. 427, No. 68, A.D. 1639.
                                               Whitney, Aug. 19th.
          Sir Robert Whitney to Secretary Nicholas.
     "By a letter from the Council, my personal attendance on the
Board is required on ye first of September to give an account of my
proceedings in the business of H. Majesty's Ship-money this year.
It falls out to be at that time wherein I hope to prevail more for my
good success in that employment than hitherto I have been able to
do notwithstanding all my utmost endeavours to that purpose; and
if my attendance on the Board for the present might be excused I
doubt not but to farther H.M.'s Service more by my presence here
now than otherwise I can expect. With much ado, I have at last
got in almost all the assessments and procured some part of the
money to be levied which I will pay in as soon as I possibly can. I
daily expect more and fear that my absence would cool their
diligence who are not willingly employed this way, and if they be not
followed close now they are in action will quickly fall off into the
former neglect. What impossibilities have been lain upon me of
answering the Lords' expectations, and my own desires for the good
success of the service I have lately represented to the Earl of
Bridgwater who was by the Lords directed to require an account
thereof from me, and I hope I shall make good use of his Lordship's

94                          COUNTY OF HEREFORD.

effectual earnestness with me to quicken others whom of necessity
I must employ, so that if I be not now withdrawn from the
prosecution of the course that I am in I trust I shall be able in
Michaelmas term to give the Lords good satisfaction of my diligent
endeavour to promote H.M. service in this particular to the utmost
of my power. I have sent you enclosed an account of the general
charge as it is distributed amongst the particular parishes, towns,
and villages, and desire, if it may be, to obtain a release from this so
sudden attendance; otherwise though it be to the further delay of
the service, which in my absence will be at a stand, I must and will
obey their Lordships' call. Be pleased to let me understand by the
Bearer whether I may expect the favour or no."
     Certificate annexed of parochial proportion of contribution.
     D.S.P., Vol. 428, No. 18, 3d. September, 1639.
               The Council to Sir Robert Whitney.
     "We have seen yor. letter of xixth August addressed to
Mr. Nicholas and have by H. Majesty's command in whose presence
the same was read to the Board to let you know that he expected
better effects of yor. endeavours in a service of this importance and
howsoever he is generously pleased at your request and upon the
reasons you have alleged to spare yor. attendance here in person for
the present, yet his command is that you fail not by the first day of
next term to levy and pay in all the ship-money payable by the
Writ of 1638 whereof if you should fail you must expect no further
favour, this being a service not to be so trifled with and neglected as
hitherto it has been by you more than by any other Sheriff in the
whole Kingdom."
     D.S.P., Vol. 429, No. 29, Whitney, September, 1639.
          Sir Robert Whitney to Mr. Secretary Nicholas.
     "By a letter of the Council of the 3rd inst. I am required upon
the 1st day of next term to pay in the whole of this year's Ship-
Money charged upon this county. But that which I have received
already which is between £400 and £500, and the rest or as much
thereof as possibly I can by any means procure being forced to
employ numerous servants continually in distraining for almost
all that I receive. I will not fail to pay it at the beginning of
November intending in the meantime to use all the care and
diligence that may be to perform this same to the full being loath to
leave my arrears until another year if by any possible means I may

                     PARISH OF WHITNEY.                     95

prevent it. I acknowledge with all thankfulness yor. favour in
presenting my necessary excuses to the Lords and hope if I may
obtain the like this once I shall not be forced any more to be
troublesome to you."
     N.B.--Sir R. W. paid £610 on 10 December, 1639.
                          -----
ARMS.--Dew; a fesse dancettée sa. betw. three chaplets ppr.
       Blissett; Paly of six or and az. On a chief arg. a fesse
          dancettée gul.
       Clanbowe; (or Clanvow) Hergest; Paly of six or and az.
          on a fesse gul. three martlets arg.
       Vaughan; Hergest; Sa, three boys' heads couped at the
          shoulders and wreathed about the neck with a snake
          ppr. Or, (as Guillim gives it,) a chevr. arg. betw. three
          children's heads crined or.

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